Te Ao

The student understands the contemporary and traditional views of Te Ao Māori, the wider world and the physical and natural worlds.

Indicator

Rationale

Observable behaviour

Whānau practices and beliefs

Research

The student acknowledges his or her place in the Māori world and in the wider world.

Māori live at the interface between te ao Māori and the wider global society.

  • Students interact with and within their immediate environment.
  • Students practice and apply tikanga as it applies to their environment.
  • Students demonstrate miharo.
  • Students discuss the local area and make comparison to other areas and places.
  • Students know their whenua.
  • Students discuss the relationships between Papatuanuku and Ranginui.
  • Students discuss traditional and contemporary Māori views.
  • Students demonstrate the links between these views, tikanga, values and beliefs
  • Students show respect for Māori knowledge.
  • Students explain the traditions associated with kuia and koroua.
  • Students display interest in the Māori world view.
  • Students discuss the Māori view of nature and the universe.
  • Students communicate their place in the whakapapa of the world.
  • Students talk about their relationship with all things.
  • Students search for knowledge of the universe.
  • Students see the connections between themselves, their place and the world.
  • Students are cognisant of the wider world.
  • Students use their creative talent to express their understanding.
  • Whānau provide a range of experiences to foster understanding and familiarity with the immediate environment.
  • They model tikanga associated with the environment
  • They model and demonstrate miharo.
  • They make all learning relevant to the local area.
  • Whānau provide opportunities to discuss the relationships between Papatuanuku and Ranginui.
  • They take every opportunity to incorporate Māori traditional and contemporary views.
  • They make clear links between these views, tikanga, values and beliefs.
  • They model respect for Māori knowledge.
  • They make use of the traditional knowledge of kuia and koroua.
  • They seize the teachable moment.
  • They model curiosity.
  • They discuss Māori knowledge of nature and the universe.
  • Whānau support students to learn their place in the whakapapa of the world.
  • They explain the relationships with all things.
  • They stimulate fascination with the world.
  • Whānau are confident as Māori in the context of the wider world.
 

Māori worldview lies at the very heart of Māori culture - touching, interacting with and strongly influencing every aspect of the culture. This contributes to the Māori holistic view of the world and the Māori place in it. (Marsden, 2003)

An educational context needs to be created where to be Māori is to be normal; where Māori cultural identities are valued, valid and legitimate; in other words where Māori children can be themselves.

(Bishop and Glynn, 1999)

Tangaere argues that through te reo Māori, children can relate to the spiritual world, the people, the land and the environment. (Webber, 1996)

The relationships of people and rangatira with the land are also relationships about power - ultimately spiritual power. Ancestral place names are important signifiers of authority and identity. (Ministry of Justice publication, 2001)

Mason Durie states that ‘uniquely relevant to Māori is the way in which the Māori world views and the wider world views of society, impact on each other.

(2003 Hui Taumata Mātauranga)

Indicator

Rationale

Observable behaviour

Whānau practices and beliefs

Research

The student acknowledges the complexity of the natural and physical world.

The physical world refers to the physical environment that we are exposed to. The natural world includes all nature in the physical environment.

  • Students show interest in their physical world and are curious about it.
  • Students care for their physical environment.
  • Students display openness to new experiences that expose them to other physical environments.
  • Students understand the place and part they play in the physical environment.
  • Students explore, enjoy, appreciate and care for the natural environment.
  • Students can explain the diversity in the natural environment.
  • Students are true to the laws of conservation passed down by their Māori forebears.
  • Students display an understanding of conservation.
  • Students show that they know where and how to find answers.
  • Students behave in an environmentally sensitive way.
  • Students marvel at and value all life forms.
  • Students are caretakers of the environment.
  • Students use practices that are environmentally friendly.
  • Students develop positive relationships with everyone and everything.
  • Students are cognisant of the world around them.
  • Students are creative in their response to the physical and natural worlds.
  • Students intuitively respond to the physical and natural worlds.
  • Whānau promote interest and curiosity about the immediate physical environment.
  • They encourage students to care for their physical environment.
  • They discuss how best to care for the physical environment.
  • They expose students to a range of different physical environments.
  • They link humanity to the physical world.
  • Whānau provide opportunity for exploration of the natural environment.
  • They model enjoyment, appreciation and care for the natural environment.
  • They encourage and prompt students to interact and care for the natural environment.
  • They discuss the diversity of the natural environment.
  • They introduce the laws of conservation passed down by Māori forebears.
  • They understand conservation and promote learning about this.
  • They provide challenge to students and encourage independent investigation, and problem solving.
 

Māori regard for the environment is connected to the retention of a cultural identity and the maintenance of Māori ideals, beliefs and way of life. (Durie, 1998)

The Kaitiakitanga initiative involves schoolchildren living in the Whirinaki Forest area understanding their role as guardians of the forest and protectors of their environment for the future generations.

(http://www.kaitiakitanga.net/)

Findings from a Ministry for the Environment report found that people are more likely to develop relevant environmental knowledge, attitudes, skills and behaviour when environmental education activities are action-oriented and focused on their own community. (Ministry for the Environment report, 1998)

Bishop et al (2001) provide examples of environmental initiatives undertaken by children and their whānau that provides the opportunity to engage actively with the natural world.

Indicator

Rationale

Observable behaviour

Whānau practices and beliefs

Research

The student actively investigates and explores the Māori world and the wider world.

Respect for the natural and physical environment is enhanced as students become increasingly familiar with te ao Māori. The concept of te ao Māori encompasses the physical environment and the natural environment.

  • Students actively participate in a range of different learning experiences.
  • Students investigate and question for detail and explanation.
  • Students demonstrate an enthusiasm for mathematical, scientific and technological concepts.
  • Students investigate and explore through mathematics, science and technology.
  • Students research independently.
  • Students explore the natural and cosmic laws of the universe.
  • Students learn about Māori cosmology (Māori interpretation of the universe). Students readily move outside their comfort zones.
  • Students participate in ongoing action research.
  • Students enjoy and participate readily in a range of learning challenges.
  • Students respond creatively to questions about the Māori and wider world views.
  • Students respond to the Māori and wider world views.
  • Whānau provide a range of opportunities for students to explore.
  • They encourage curiosity.
  • They model and promote questioning.
  • They motivate and stimulate.
  • They make learning relevant to the students’ world.
  • They create links and examples that align the Māori world view to the wider world view.
  • They promote exploration and inquiry.
  • They promote research and provide resources for this to happen.
  • They seize the teachable moment.
  • Whānau are confident as Māori in the context of the wider world.
  • Whānau move outside their comfort zones when necessary.
  • They model ongoing action research.
  • They take opportunities to challenge others.
  • Whānau immerse students in an environment that reflects the Māori world view.

‘Problem-posing education knowledge’ emerges only through invention and re-invention, through the restless impatient, continuing, hopeful inquiry, human beings pursue in the world, with the world and with each other. (Freire, 2003)

Inherent in language is a people’s relationship with the world and views on the world. Therefore the context used in science education classrooms without language will wither and petrify both the knowledge and the people it comes from. (McKinley, 2005)

Traditional knowledge forms are increasingly being recognised worldwide as a means to help find solutions to complex problems, to enhance understanding of our environment, and to provide a basis for strengthening cultural identity. (Harmsworth, 2002)

Researchers show that Māori children can be taught to engage with their people, land and environment through te reo and tikanga Māori. (Te Whaiti, McCarthy and Durie, 1997)