Te Reo

The student is a competent thinker, speaker, reader and writer in both Māori and English.

Indicator

Rationale

Observable behaviour

Whānau practices and beliefs

Research

The student is immersed in te reo me ngā tikanga Māori.

Total immersion most rapidly develops language competence.

Language development is fostered in a learning environment where creativity and experimentation are encouraged.

  • Students are immersed in te reo, hear it spoken, and speak it themselves.
  • Students understand that using te reo Māori helps them to express their identity.
  • Students demonstrate through use that language affirms culture.
  • Students demonstrate the wairua of te reo.
  • Students use different technology to support their learning of te reo Māori.
  • Students are exposed to rich language situations, marae, manu korero and use te reo Māori themselves.
  • Students hear, speak, read, write and reflect on language meaning and structure.
  • Students’ exposure to te reo includes the creative use of language.
  • Students demonstrate language knowledge and use language peculiar to their whānau.
  • Students use te reo Māori competently in a range of situations.
  • Students understand the importance of te reo Māori.
  • Students welcome opportunities to speak te reo Māori.
  • Students speak te reo Māori to each other and others.
  • Students regard te reo Māori as a taonga.
  • Whānau speak te reo Māori at all times.
  • Whānau immerse students in te reo and use it consistently with students.
  • They state that language expresses identity.
  • They demonstrate through use that language affirms culture.
  • They model the wairua of te reo.
  • They provide instruction, guidance and support in te reo.
  • They encourage kōrero at all times.
  • They know language and have strategies to prompt discussion.
  • They encourage language exchange.
  • They use questioning techniques to promote language use.
  • They provide a language-learning environment that prompts kōrero, whakarongo, pānui and tuhituhi.
  • They provide high-level exposure to oral, aural and written language.
  • They use an integrated approach to language learning.
  • They develop a critical language awareness.
  • They focus on te reo Māori fluency.
  • They provide formal instruction where they define the rules, forms and processes associated with learning and improving the use of te reo Māori.
  • They promote opportunities to interact through speaking and writing.
  • They provide feedback and feedforward to encourage and guide language development.
  • They define high expectations for language development.
 

Indigenous histories, knowledge, experiences and identity are inextricably linked to the recovery indigenous language. (McKinley, 2005)

Nepe in Pihama, Cram and Walker, (2002) writes “Māori knowledge is esoteric and essentially Māori. It validates the Māori worldview and is owned and controlled by Māori through Te Reo Māori. Te Reo Māori is the only language that can access, conceptualize, and internalize in spiritual terms this body of knowledge.”

Research found that involvement in kura benefited parents / whānau, leading to parents / whānau speaking more te reo Māori and pursuing te reo Māori lessons. (Cooper et al 2004)

Research found that effective teachers set up an oral-rich environment and organised their programmes to cater for a wide range of Māori language skills. (McNaughton et al, 2004)

Indicator

Rationale

Observable behaviour

Whānau practices and beliefs

Research

The student acquires skills for effective communication in te reo Māori.

Communication in te reo Māori affirms student identity as Māori and gives entry to te ao Māori.

  • Students are attentive listeners.
  • Students recognise sounds and phrases.
  • Students mimic the spoken word and know basic words and structures.
  • Students persist in creating clear messages.
  • Students listen, respond, explore and discuss language.
  • Students use verbal and non-verbal communication.
  • Students respond appropriately in different situations.
  • Students’ individual language learning needs are considered.
  • Students are encouraged to speak language adhering to the language code of te reo Māori.
  • Students naturally modify their language.
  • Students engage in a range of verbal exchanges: conversational, formal, informal, and to an audience.
  • Students are speak Māori as a matter of course.
  • Students demonstrate that they think critically, discuss, interpret and question.
  • Students use language appropriately and persuasively.
  • Students use good questioning skills.
  • Students know the range of different dialects.
  • Students are passionate about te reo, speaking, engaging and actively seeking opportunities to speak.
  • Students intuitively use the dialect they are most exposed to.
  • Whānau expose students to te reo.
  • They model language use in a range of situations.
  • They provide a rich language-learning environment where students hear, speak and reflect on meaning and structure.
  • They use verbal and non-verbal communication.
  • They provide high level exposure to te reo Māori.
  • They provide opportunities to explore language.
  • They assess levels of oral language and determine language learning phases.
  • They accommodate oral language learning phases.
  • They model language use adhering to the code.
  • They encourage language modification through correction.
  • Whānau use a range of language acquisition strategies to promote language use.
  • They discuss those who have achieved as speakers of Māori.
  • They discuss the dialectal differences of language.
  • They focus instruction on fluency.
  • They define language rules, forms and processes.
  • They provide feedback and feedforward to encourage and guide language development.
  • They make use of their subject and pedagogical knowledge.
 

International research shows that children will learn a language best through games, stories, songs and fantasy, and through immersion in varied programmes that involve them reading, writing, listening to and speaking the language. (Cooper et al, 2004)

Well-designed instructional activities, language acquisition and literacy learning can help facilitate the learning of Te Reo Māori. (McNaughton et al, 2006)

Learning experiences such as mihimihi, karakia, hïmene, waiata, poi and haka, cultural specific activities and game playing impart Māori knowledge through the use of Māori language and enable children to internalise te reo Māori as well as Māori culture. (Tangaere, in Webber, 1996)

Bishop et al (2001) found that good teachers used effective strategies to support students in finding and using the appropriate Māori kupu for words or phrases.

Indicator

Rationale

Observable behaviour

Whānau practices and beliefs

Research

The student engages with te reo Māori throughout the learning programme.

Language programmes that centre on student learning build and reinforce the skills progressively in all aspects of language learning.

  • Students engage with and enjoy written language.
  • Students engage with and enjoy reading
  • Students actively choose texts for personal reading.
  • Students know and use a range of written language skills.
  • Students use their imagination when writing.
  • Students know and use correct spelling and grammar.
  • Students write logically demonstrating a flow of ideas.
  • Students engage with and enjoy visual language.
  • Students read, write and reflect on meaning and structure.
  • Students read and write to extend their knowledge of language rules, forms and processes.
  • Students demonstrate that they process information and interpret it before they respond.
  • Students explore language forms and different genres.
  • Whānau provide a rich language-learning environment where students read, write and reflect on meaning and structure.
  • They define language rules, forms and processes.
  • They assess levels of language and determine phases.
  • They accommodate language learning phases.
  • They use a range of language acquisition strategies.
  • They make language resources to support teaching and learning.
  • They provide feedback and feedforward to encourage and guide language development.
  • They make use of their subject and pedagogical knowledge.

Bishop et al. (2001) found that teachers in Māori medium classes demonstrated a wide range of strategies for teaching reading and writing which also focused and reinforced the cultural identity of the children.

Research suggests that developing a collection of methodologies, approaches and research/practice-based evidence, which are directly relevant to dual language, and dual culture learners would improve language use and understanding. (Van Hees in MoE report, 2004)

Indicator

Rationale

Observable behaviour

Whānau practices and beliefs

Research

The student speaks te reo Māori fluently and confidently explores language.

Language learning is heightened as students are willing to:

  • take risks and experiment with language
  • engage in discussion
  • explore and question.
  • Students actively engage in conversations and discussions.
  • Students use language to express themselves creatively.
  • Students publish in te reo Māori.
  • Students engage with peers and adults in te reo Māori.
  • Students are confident risk takers with te reo Māori.
  • Students express their feelings.
  • Students speak te reo Māori without code mixing (ie use correct Māori grammatical structure.
  • Students ask questions intelligently and fearlessly.
  • Students are confident to participate in known and unknown language exchanges.
  • Students encourage, prompt and praise others.
  • Students define the language functions.
  • Students are expressive speakers.
  • Students are secure in their language and culture.
  • Students use their natural ability when speaking Māori.
  • Students confidently use language to investigate and solve problems.
  • Students speak Māori competently.
  • Students are passionate speakers of Māori.
  • Students read and write competently in Māori.
  • Students are fluent in spoken and written te reo Māori.
  • Students actively pursue the resurgence of te reo Māori.
  • Whānau promote active discussions and provide a range of opportunities for students.
  • They discuss language proficiency.
  • They promote risk taking.
  • They acknowledge all language efforts.
  • They promote engaging conversations.
  • They model grammatical correctness.
  • They promote language use that reflects feelings and attitudes.
  • They model language without code switching.
  • Whānau promote a range of differing language experiences where students are challenged.
  • They model encouragement by prompts and praise.
  • They are expressive speakers of Māori.
  • They are secure in their language and culture.
  • They are passionate speakers of Māori.
  • They insist on competence in Māori language.
  • They provide a range of opportunities for students to strengthen reading and writing competence.
 

The community and kura worked in close collaboration, which resulted in the Māori language in the kura being strong and affirming for Māori. (Berryman and Glynn, 2003)

Respect for Māori language gives Māori children a sense of self‑esteem and is therefore an important component of giving respect and dignity to Māori children. (Ministry of Education 1998)

Indicator

Rationale

Observable behaviour

Whānau practices and beliefs

Research

The student acquires skills for effective communication in English.

Māori need to live confidently in the Māori and wider world.

  • Students already display competence in reading and writing Māori.
  • Students display a readiness to learn English.
  • Students display a desire to learn English and request English instruction.
  • Students are introduced to English during the learning time.
  • Students are aware of the need to keep languages separate.
  • Students adhere to language learning zones.
  • Students speak English in a designated English speaking zone.
  • Students learn according to their defined needs.
  • Students are involved in a range of learning experiences to enhance their understanding of the English language.
  • Students understand the diverse nature of the English language.
  • Students discuss the conventions of English speaking, reading and writing.
  • Students practise speaking reading and writing in English.
  • Students speak English competently.
  • Students explore the English language creatively.
  • Students experiment with the English language.
  • Students display respect for the English language.
  • Students display interest/a natural talent for acquisition of the English language.
  • Whānau demonstrate that students have competence in reading and writing Māori and are ready to learn English.
  • They discuss the benefits of introducing English.
  • They determine a period of time for the introduction of English learning.
  • They consider the views of students and others in determining when English shall be taught.
  • Whānau employ the services of an English teacher.
  • They dedicate an area as an English speaking zone.
  • They encourage the use of English at appropriate times.
  • Whānau introduce English teaching in a well-considered way.
  • They assess and have an understanding of the needs of individual students.
  • They understand and apply the principles of language acquisition to the instruction of English.
  • They model English use.
  • They provide instruction in English about the conventions of speaking, reading and writing English.

Hingangaroa Smith (1995) found that many parents whose children attend kura kaupapa Māori want their children to develop expertise in both Māori and Pakeha language and culture.

Findings from Berryman and Glynn (2003) found that the community and the kura worked together to provide specific support for Māori children who were making the transition from Māori to English.

“Teachers must be fluent speakers, readers and writers in both languages... If teachers are not fluent in both languages, they will not be able to teach students the academic language proficiencies required for long-term academic success.” (May, Hill and Tiakiwai, 2004)

Research found that students must have the opportunity to take risks, ask questions, and have the chance to use their English-speaking skills where they are respected and appreciated for learning English as a second language. (Leathley, 2006)

Indicator

Rationale

Observable behaviour

Whānau practices and beliefs

Research

The student acquires skills for effective communication in a range of other languages.

Once students have learnt a second language they have developed skills for further language learning.

  • Students are interested in other languages.
  • Students demonstrate respect for other languages.
  • Students are exposed to a range of other languages.
  • Students choose to learn another language.
  • Students learn according to their defined needs.
  • Students understand the diverse nature of other languages.
  • Students explore other languages creatively.
  • Students experiment with other languages.
  • Students discuss the conventions of speaking, reading and writing in other languages.
  • Students speak other languages.
  • Students display a natural talent for acquisition of other languages.
  • Students understand that language development includes cultural understanding.
  • Students explore other countries and their language.
  • Whānau introduce other languages into the learning programme.
  • They model respect for other languages.
  • They create opportunities for learning and instruction.
  • They model other language use.
  • They assess and have an understanding of the needs of individual students.
  • They understand and apply the principles of second language acquisition to the instruction of other languages.
  • They use other languages.
 

May and Hill (2003) advocate greater revitalisation of te reo Māori which focuses on speaking te reo Māori as well as achieving high level biliteracy for students in Māori-medium programmes.

Bilingualism in education offers cognitive, cultural and social benefits… including the ability to better use language… increasing ones own cultural worldview and its relationships to others. (Berryman and Glynn, 2003)

International research found that a sound foundation in the first language makes it more likely that subsequent language(s) will be acquired successfully. Students who are denied this foundation are found to be severely disadvantaged, their acquisition of a second language is slowed and their mother tongue skills are devalued. (Corson, 1995)