Te Wāhanga Framework – Indicator Tables

The student develops physical, spiritual and emotional wellbeing, an awareness of his or her individual uniqueness and knowledge and respect for him or herself and others

Indicator

Rationale

Observable behaviour

Whānau practices and beliefs

Research

The student is enthusiastic about learning in a nurturing environment based on traditional Māori values beliefs and concepts.

An environment based in Māori traditional values, beliefs and concepts provides a strong foundation for the learner.

  • Students discuss the learning environment.
  • Students contribute creatively to the design of the environment.
  • Students participate in an environment where concepts of wairua, mauri, tapu, ihomatua and mana are reflected.
  • Students apply their knowledge of wairua, mauri, tapu, ihomatua and mana to everyday situations.
  • Students participate in activities that reflect tikanga practices and values.
  • Students learn a range of karakia and whakataukī.
  • Students use karakia and whakataukī.
  • Students discuss their ideas with community members.
  • Students analyse and make use of the information shared by the community.
  • Students are involved and participate in Te Aho Matua wānanga.
  • Students discuss the kaupapa of the kura.
  • Students value the involvement of whānau.
  • Students value the contributions made by others.
  • Students are aware that who they are influences the development of the learning programme.
  • Students have opportunities to work independently, with peers, with teina, tuakana and in groups, and do so.
  • Students display enthusiasm for learning.
  • Students appear happy in the learning environment.
  • Students care for others.
  • Whānau discuss the learning environment.
  • They discuss the value of a nurturing environment.
  • They make informed decisions about the learning environment.
  • Whānau ensure that the concepts of:

- Wairua

- Mauri

- Tapu

- Ihomatua

- Mana

are reflected in the kura environment.

  • They ensure that tikanga practices and values are reflected in the curriculum, in planning and learning programmes.
  • Whānau use knowledge and skills from their own community.
  • They use community knowledge and skills to enhance the learning programme.
  • They are involved in Te Aho Matua wānanga and discuss the kura kaupapa.
  • They are clear about Te Aho Matua and their kura kaupapa.
  • They value the contributions made by others.
  • Whānau combine their knowledge of students, learning, tikanga and Te Aho Matua to provide a responsive learning environment.
  • They provide a student-centred learning environment
  • They focus on both individual and collective needs of students.
  • They provide a caring and supportive learning environment.
  • They display care and concern for students and others.

Bishop and Berryman (2006) found that the quality of educational relationships were the most influential factor affecting Māori students’ educational achievement.

The educational success is best achieved when the school philosophy, structures and systems reflect the cultural capital of the students. (Bourdieu in Brimi, 2005.)

Bishop, Berryman and Richardson (2002) found that effective teachers create culturally appropriate and responsive contexts for learning by creating caring relationships, for their students and their whānau, by encouraging students to care for and respect one another, and by allowing the principles of whānau to guide their practices.

Fulcher (2001) argues that to ensure the cultural safety of Māori children the importance of wairua must be acknowledged, as without it, one could not affirm a true sense of identity.

Indicator

Rationale

Observable behaviour

Whānau practices and beliefs

Research

The student values his or her identity, is confident and displays positive self-esteem.

A sense of identity contributes towards the student’s:

- understanding of his or her place in the whānau

- understanding of his or her place in the local and wider communities

- respect for self and others

- his or her individual self esteem.

  • Students know and share their own whakapapa.
  • Students use karakia, waiata and moteatea to enhance their knowledge of their whānau, hapū and iwi.
  • Students participate in a range of experiences to learn about themselves and their whānau.
  • Students share learning about themselves with their peers, whānau and kaumātua.
  • Students are exposed to whānau, hapū and iwi differences.
  • Students learn about tangata rongonui from within the whānau, hapū and iwi.
  • Students are aware of their individual and collective mana.
  • Students honour and respect themselves, whānau and others.
  • Students participate confidently.
  • Students acknowledge their individual strengths and weaknesses.
  • Students acknowledge their natural talent.
  • Students display personal pride in their achievements.
  • Students acknowledge their creative abilities.
  • Students acknowledge that some of their individual attributes come from other whānau members.
  • Students demonstrate confidence through their creativity.
  • Whānau know and share their hapū and iwi differences.
  • They use iwi knowledge to inform the content of the learning programme.
  • They know and share the local hapū and iwi and use this knowledge to inform programme content.
  • They know who they are and share this knowledge with students.
  • Whānau become familiar with other whānau, their hapū and iwi affiliations.
  • They know and use different iwi language structures, karakia, moteatea and waiata in the programme content.
  • They actively pursue knowledge of themselves.
  • They introduce students to tangata rongonui from within the whānau, hapū and iwi.
  • Kaumātua and other whānau are present during different learning experiences.
  • They model that they value individual and collective skills and attributes
  • They provide opportunities for students to learn about the individual and collective skills and attributes of others.
  • Whānau know themselves and others.
  • They demonstrate honour and respect to all people.
  • Whānau provide opportunities for students to express themselves with confidence.
  • They encourage students to talk about their strengths and weaknesses.
  • They encourage students to take pride in their individual achievements.
  • They provide students with opportunities to foster their creative and natural talents.

Taha Māori has the potential to help Māori students feel a greater sense of identity and self-worth as well as enhance their educational achievements. (Hirsch in Bishop and Glynn, 1999, pg 42)

Harrison and Papa (2005) found that effective teachers had a strong focus on ensuring students were well versed and confident in their own history, ways of speaking and local knowledge.

Durie (1999) found that the positive role of Māori Kaumatua represents a reciprocated arrangement whereby younger people use the skills of older relatives and in return provide care and support.

In order for Māori students to effectively engage with study, Māori students need to see their values, experiences, traditions and cultural icons acknowledged through the curriculum. (Bishop in Gorinsky and Abernathy, 2003).

Indicator

Rationale

Observable behaviour

Whānau practices and beliefs

Research

The student is physically, spiritually and emotionally confident.

The physical, spiritual and emotional well being of students support and compliment their intellectual development.

  • Students are aware of the need to pursue healthy habits.
  • Students are aware of the importance of personal health and well being.
  • Students participate in activities that foster physical development.
  • Students are involved in a comprehensive physical education programme.
  • Students enjoy physical activity.
  • Students actively support team members.
  • Students participate in a range of situations where different karakia, waiata and mōteatea are used.
  • Students know the importance of karakia, waiata and mōteatea.
  • Students participate in activities that foster spiritual development.
  • Students acknowledge their spiritual and personal needs.
  • Students consider the spiritual needs of others.
  • Students model and demonstrate care and support of others.
  • Students have an opportunity to talk about how they feel.
  • Students show concern and care for others.
  • Students are creative in the way they support others.
  • Students understand the range of personal emotions.
  • Students use their intuition in a range of situations.
  • Students are aware of the need to treat others well.
  • Students are able to share and display their emotions.
  • Students appear happy and content.
  • Whānau encourage and model the pursuit of healthy habits.
  • They discuss healthy habits and healthy food.
  • They encourage eating healthy food at kura.
  • They use rongoa in their homes.
  • They respect the physical uniqueness of each individual.
  • They respect the physical body.
  • They model how to look after the physical body.
  • They provide comprehensive physical education programmes in kura.
  • Whānau respect the spiritual uniqueness of each individual.
  • They provide a range of learning experiences that foster spiritual development.
  • They make available karakia, waiata and mōteatea for different situations.
  • They provide explanations about the importance of karakia, waiata and mōteatea.
  • Whānau model care and support for others.
  • They encourage discussion of and consideration for emotions.
  • They include opportunities to display care and concern in the learning programme.
  • They understand student development and learning phases.
  • They take time to ensure that students are happy and content.
  • They actively foster sharing.
 

The aim of He Korowai Oranga is whānau ora and recognises the need for positive Māori health initiatives to the benefit of Māori wellbeing and development. (Whakatātaka Māori Health Action Plan 2002-2005)

Drawing on experience from the Māori community can help young people make informed decisions about their health. (MoH publication, sexual and reproductive strategies for action health, 2002)

Harrison and Papa (2005) found that student involvement in activities like kapa haka instilled in students self-confidence and an awareness of their own whakapapa.

Slater (2003) found that the programme Te Reo Kori increased Māori students’ sense of self-worth and confidence as well as their knowledge of Te Reo Māori and Tikanga.

Indicator

Rationale

Observable behaviour

Whānau practices and beliefs

Research

The student accepts and respects gender difference.

Gender is a factor when considering the needs, aspirations and development of students.

  • Students are aware of the different roles of men and women in Māoridom.
  • Students accept that each gender has significance in their environment.
  • Students accept that there are differing views about gender in the wider world.
  • Students acknowledge the distinct skills and strengths of men and women.
  • Students understand the reciprocal relationships between men and women.
  • Students participate in activities that foster the complementary roles of men and women in Māoridom.
  • Students discuss contemporary and traditional views of gender.
  • Students show respect for gender differences.
  • Students acknowledge the influence that gender difference has on their learning and skill development.
  • Students acknowledge their ancestors and key gender roles they held.
  • Students aspire to fulfil their specific gender roles in Māoridom.
  • Students practice specific gender roles in Māoridom.
  • Students consider and accept the creative attributes of both genders.
  • Students are caring toward those of both genders.
  • Whānau respect both men and women.
  • They acknowledge the roles of men and women in their environment.
  • They acknowledge the roles of men and women in the wider world.
  • They use the strengths and skills of men and women.
  • They discuss and understand the reciprocal relationship between men and women.
  • They model the complementary relationships of men and women.
  • They include in the learning programme opportunities to further investigate these.
  • They provide opportunity to consider contemporary and traditional views of gender.
  • Whānau provide opportunity for students to discuss the influence gender has.
  • They promote an understanding of ancestral gender roles.
  • They treat each student as different and respond to their individual gender needs.
  • They consider gender and age when determining how to respond to gender roles.
 

Children’s gender identity is influenced significantly by the surrounding society and their gender identity in turn influences children’s perceptions of different school subjects their achievement in those subjects and also their behaviour towards others. (Biddulph et al, 2003)

A key issue for indigenous women in any challenge of contemporary indigenous politics is the restoration to women of what are seen as their traditional roles, rights and responsibilities. (Tuhiwai Smith, 2003)

Tuhiwai Smith (2003) argues that indigenous women need to restore and define for themselves what is seen as their traditional roles, rights and responsibilities.

Indicator

Rationale

Observable behaviour

Whānau practices and beliefs

Research

The student is caring, considerate and cooperative.

Positive attitudes influence good behaviour and contribute to positive interaction that supports learning.

  • Students display positive attitudes in a range of different circumstances and situations.
  • Students are eager to be involved in a range of activities.
  • Students compliment and praise others.
  • Students display pride in their own achievements.
  • Students respond well across a range of different environments.
  • Students display on-task behaviour.
  • Students follow class, group and kura routines.
  • Students are self motivated.
  • Students understand the importance of good behaviour.
  • Students are involved in discussions about good behaviour.
  • Students know a range of techniques to resolve conflict.
  • Students resolve conflict amicably.
  • Students demonstrate humility and tolerance.
  • Students display kindness and are approachable.
  • Students display aroha and respect toward others.
  • Students are considerate and cooperative.
  • Students appear happy with one another.
  • Students interact positively.
  • Students communicate positively.
  • Students creatively display care concern and cooperation.
  • Students display natural talent when caring for others.
  • Whānau provide a range of activities that foster student involvement.
  • They model a positive approach to kura and whānau activities.
  • They encourage students to participate.
  • They praise and compliment students.
  • They acknowledge individual and group success.
  • They reward individual and group success.
  • They display pride in the achievements of others.
  • Whānau model positive behaviour.
  • They are caring.
  • They have established clear expectations for classroom routines.
  • They have considered the value of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
  • They have zero tolerance of bullying and violence.
  • They discuss positive parenting, non-violence and conflict resolution.
  • They demonstrate tolerance and humility.
  • Whānau model relationships based on aroha and respect.
  • They display compassion.
  • They are considerate and cooperative with others.
  • They communicate positively.
  • They provide social interaction that fosters tolerance and humility toward others.
 

Positive teacher attitudes towards Māori students are fundamental in enabling Māori students to express themselves as Māori. (Bishop and Berryman, 2006)

Research has found that well‑designed group experiences contribute to the knowledge, self‑esteem and empowerment of individuals as well as motivating students, increasing academic achievement and promoting positive behaviour. (Salter, 2003)

Research by Hohepa (1990) and Ka’ai (1990) demonstrates how the practice of whanaungatanga instils in children values of aroha, manaakitanga, atawhai and āwhina.

Indicator

Rationale

Observable behaviour

Whānau practices and beliefs

Research

The student is focused and accepts responsibility for learning.

Students learn better when they are interested and involved in their learning and they can relate to the subject matter.

  • Students talk about their own personal learning expectations.
  • Students talk about where they see themselves in the kura and wider community.
  • Students talk about their strengths and weaknesses.
  • Students discuss and set individual learning goals.
  • Students discuss the best strategies to achieve their goals.
  • Students know the academic pathway they intend to follow.
  • Students talk about the physical, emotional and spiritual pathways they intend to follow.
  • Students know their learning objectives.
  • Students are actively engaged in creative arts.
  • Students are divergent thinkers.
  • Students learn from their mistakes.
  • Students make their own choices.
  • Students are focused on the activity they are involved in.
  • Students display enthusiasm towards learning.
  • Students appear involved and motivated.
  • Whānau have high expectations of themselves, students and others.
  • They make time to set individual and whānau goals.
  • They encourage students to talk about their personal expectations.
  • They encourage students to discuss and understand their individual strengths and weaknesses.
  • They support students in setting individual goals.
  • They understand the relationship between goal setting and success.
  • They give students academic, spiritual, physical and emotional options.
  • They praise students’ efforts.
  • They offer encouragement.
  • They define the learning objectives.
  • Whānau use a range of strategies to foster diverse thinking.
  • They use creative arts, music, song, dance, drama, drawing, painting, prose and poetry to foster imagining.
  • They are open-minded and encourage this in others.
  • They provide learning activities that encourage students to make choices.

Rubie- Davies et al (2006) found that teacher expectations could have a significant impact on achievement and the learning gains of Māori students.

Research found that teachers’ self‑efficacy or a belief in one’s ability to make change was a powerful mechanism by which changes that lead to raising Māori student achievement could be realised. (Tuuta et al, 2004)

Teachers were most effective when they encouraged students to be part of their own evaluation and to determine what was to be evaluated. (Bishop et al, 2001)

Bishop et al (2001) emphasise the importance of involving children in the decision-making process about their own education.