Part 6: ERO's evaluation indicators for education reviews in home-based education and care services

Introduction

Indicators are statements that indicate whether a goal has been achieved. In this document, ERO’s evaluation indicators are about the factors in a home-based service that contribute to positive learning outcomes for children. The indicators provide a framework that allow for judgements to be made about what is being practised and the difference between what is enacted and high quality practice.

ERO’s evaluation indicators for home-based services:

  • help to determine if high quality is being achieved
  • are indicative of quality - they do not represent quality practice on their own
  • are statements that can be verified through data collection and analysis.

They are not requirements and home-based services are not expected to demonstrate that they have achieved all practices outlined in the indicators.

The primary purpose of ERO’s evaluation indicators is to promote improvement.

Indicator development

ERO’s evaluation indicators for education reviews in home-based education and care services are based on current national and international evaluation and research, findings from ERO’s national evaluations, and many years of reviewing experience within ERO.

ERO conducted a wide ranging literature search related to early childhood education over the past ten years. The search encompassed diverse theoretical and methodological perspectives. Priority was given to New Zealand research in order to provide localised perspectives on best practice in early childhood education.

Research ranged in size, scope and focus. Studies that had been subject to peer review or accepted for publication, and reports of major studies were given priority. Research ranged from action-research and small-scale research projects through to larger projects and longitudinal studies. Where a lack of research was found the scope of the search was expanded or deepened. In some instances opinion pieces, articles or other material were used if they communicated ideas or aspects of best practice not well explored in research.

The indicators as a resource

The evaluation indicators are a resource to inform the judgements that ERO reviewers make about different aspects of performance in early childhood services. They are also intended to clarify the basis on which ERO evaluates early childhood performance, and to assist in the development of early childhood services’ internal evaluation.

Cross-checking across several indicators strengthens the evidence base for answering evaluative questions.

For ERO, the evaluation indicators:

  • support the implementation of Ngā Pou Here, the review framework
  • keep the reviews focused on the factors that contribute to successful outcomes
  • keep the importance of success for Māori children to the fore
  • assist ERO reviewers to consider what is significant when making judgements about how well placed the service is to promote positive learning outcomes for all children
  • promote consistency by providing guidance for reviewers
  • provide a basis for discussion with service personnel about what they know about the quality of education and associated outcomes for children who attend their service.

For early childhood services, the evaluation indicators:

  • make the review process transparent
  • help them to understand the basis on which ERO makes its judgements
  • focus them on factors that contribute to positive outcomes for children
  • support their focus on diverse groups of children and their families
  • provide a tool to assist them with their own internal evaluationhelp to build their evaluation capacity by modelling evaluative questions and evidence-based judgments.

How the indicators are organised

The indicators are organised within each of the four Pou of Ngā Pou Here.

At the beginning of each set of Pou there are indicators for partnership with parents (Haere Kōtui) and sustainability through internal evaluation (Arotake). These elements weave through and connect each Pou. As a result there is some overlap across the different sections.

The evaluation indicators for each Pou are preceded by questions to guide evaluation and review of that Pou.

The evaluation questions and prompts

Priority questions

  • These questions are designed to find out what the service knows through its internal evaluation about its priority learners. They are also focused on the effectiveness of partnerships and internal evaluation in relation to each Pou.

Supporting evaluation questions

  • These are the key evaluative questions that highlight the main aspects of each Pou.

Investigative prompts

  • These prompts further unpack the priority questions and the supporting evaluation questions. They are examples rather than a definitive list.

The indicators

Connecting elements

  • These refer to indicators related to Haere Kotui (partnerships with parents and whanau) and Arotake (sustainability through internal evaluation). Because Haere Kotui and Arotake are woven across each Pou there is a connecting elements indicator section for each Pou.

Contributing elements

  • This is a way of grouping the indicators according to particular aspects of practice or common themes for particular indicators.

Using the indicators as part of internal evaluation

  • The indicators can be used:

~ to foster greater depth of understanding about an element or area for development

~ as a tool for exploring an aspect of high quality practice

~ as a measure to evaluate whether high quality is being achieved.

  • The investigative questions are a good starting point to reflect on an aspect of practice.
  • By answering one of ERO’s priority questions a home-based education and care service will be asking itself a challenging question that is likely to generate in-depth review and evaluation.

Evaluation indicators for home-based education and care services

EVALUATION FRAMEWORK FOR POU WHAKAHAERE

 

How effectively do the service’s philosophy, vision, goals and systems promote positive learning outcomes for all children?

Priority questions

What does the service provider know about the effectiveness of its philosophy, vision, goals and systems in:

  • supporting Maori children to achieve success as Maori?
  • supporting Pacific children to achieve success?
  • supporting all children as individuals?
  • responding to the interests, strengths and capabilities of diverse groups of children who attend the service and supporting them to achieve success?

How effectively do umbrella organisations, service providers, coordinators/visiting teachers of the service promote partnerships with parents and whanau?

How effectively does internal evaluation guide decision-making and lead to improvements in the provision of high quality education and care?

Supporting evaluation questions

To what extent does this service:

  • value and implement Te Tiriti o Waitangi principles through its policies and practices?
  • include parent and whanau aspirations and expectations for their children's learning in the vision and associated goals and plans?
  • have a philosophy that reflects the values and beliefs of service providers, coordinators/visiting teachers, educators, parents, whanau and community? This is regularly reviewed to reflect changing circumstances. (such as; change of ownership, personnel or other circumstances that have an impact on the services home-based community).
  • plan (long and short term) and implement strategies that focus on improvement and children's learning?
  • have policies that guide practice?
  • effectively manage finances, resourcing, health and safety?
  • appoint employees with relevant knowledge and expertise?
  • provide for ongoing coordinator/visiting teacher and educator development?
  • involve coordinators/visiting teachers, educators, parents and whanau in internal evaluation?
  • use robust processes in internal evaluation?
  • use internal evaluation to guide decision-making and improve quality?

Examples of prompts for investigation

  • In what ways do plans, policies and practices demonstrate evidence of a commitment to Te Tiriti o Waitangi principles? What processes are used to consult with parents, whānau, iwi, hapū and the wider community?
  • Are the processes used to communicate with whānau Māori appropriate, for example kanohi ki te kanohi?
  • How does the service provider find out what aspirations and expectations parents and whānau have for their children?
  • How is this information used?
  • What informs this service provider's long and short term planning? Does it include a strong focus on coordinator/ visiting teachers, educators and children's learning?
  • How has the statement of philosophy been developed? Has it been reviewed? Is it reviewed when personnel change? Who was involved? Whose values and beliefs does it reflect?
  • How does the service ensure alignment between policy and practice?
  • In what ways does internal evaluation link to the service's vision and associated goals?
  • What internal evaluation is undertaken of service providers', coordinators'/visiting teachers' and educators' practices? What internal evaluation is planned? What internal evaluation is undertaken in a spontaneous way?
  • What processes are used to carry out internal evaluation?
  • How are the outcomes of internal evaluation used by those responsible for governing and managing this service? What is the impact of internal evaluation for this service? What difference does it make for all children and their families?

Indicators for Pou Whakahaere

ELEMENTS

EXAMPLES OF INDICATORS

Connecting elements

Pou Whakahaere and partnerships with parents, family and whānau

The philosophy, vision and associated goals and plans are influenced by the aspirations parents, families and whānau have for their children.

  • The service provider acknowledges Māori as tangata whenua and is committed to Tiriti-based partnerships.
  • The importance of Te Tiriti o Waitangi is strengthened through partnerships, policies and practices.
  • The service provider demonstrates a strong commitment to consulting parents and whānau of Māori children and involving them in decision-making.
  • The service provider demonstrates a strong commitment to consulting the family of children who have Pacific heritage and involving them in decision-making.
  • Responsive connections are developed with the parents, family and whānau of children who have diverse educational or care needs (diverse needs include children who have English as an additional language; whose families’ are migrants or refugees; who have special education needs or special abilities; or are from low-income families).
  • Coordinators/visiting teachers, parents, whānau and educators are consulted and have opportunities to contribute to internal evaluation.

Pou Whakahaere and sustainability through internal evaluation

There is compelling evidence that internal evaluation is embedded in practice and leads to improved outcomes for children, which are sustained.

  • The dual purposes of internal evaluation for accountability and improvement are well understood by service providers and coordinators/visiting teachers.
  • Robust processes are used to systematically inquire into and evaluate the effectiveness of policies, programmes and practices.
  • Expectations/guidelines/procedures are documented to effectively guide internal evaluation.
  • Internal evaluation:

– is ongoing and responsive to identified priorities

– includes all aspects of the operation of the service over time

– focuses on the effectiveness of processes and practices

– is focused on promoting quality

– includes a focus on progress towards the vision, goals and outcomes.

  • Internal evaluation informs:

– decision-making at a governance level

– professional learning and development (PLD) programmes

– priorities, plans, policies and actions.

The impact of change made as a result of internal evaluation is well monitored over time.

Contributing elements

Vision

A clear vision sets direction for the service.

This vision:

– seeks to realise the potential of Māori children and their whānau

– includes reference to the bicultural nature of Aotearoa New Zealand

– is responsive to the aspirations and expectations that parents and whānau and the community have for their children

– guides long and short term planning

– reflects a commitment to high quality early childhood education for all children

– outlines the services’ outcomes for children

– expresses how educators are supported in their role to implement a quality curriculum in a safe and caring environment.

Philosophy

The service provider, coordinators/visiting teachers and educators can articulate/ demonstrate how the philosophy is enacted in practice.

The service’s philosophy:

– is developed collaboratively by the (where applicable the umbrella organisation) service provider and coordinators/visiting teachers and educators

– should be supported by current research and best practice evidence

– is clearly documented and shared with all who are involved in the home-based service and the wider community

– is regularly and collaboratively reviewed by service providers, coordinators/visiting teachers, parents and educators

– expresses shared values and beliefs which promote the wellbeing, health, safety, learning and development of children

– reflects a commitment to the bicultural heritage of Aotearoa New Zealand.

Strategic direction

The service provider has evidence to demonstrate the achievement of its vision and goals.

  • Planning (long and short term) clearly identifies the service provider’s priorities and associated goals towards achieving its vision.
  • The service provider’s priorities and goals are documented and strongly linked to positive learning outcomes for children.
  • Goals are supported by appropriate actions and resources to enable them to be achieved
  • Progress towards identified goals is systematically monitored and documented

Policy framework and guidance

The service provider’s policies and associated procedures:

– acknowledge Te Tiriti o Waitangi and Māori as tangata whenua

– take into account the rights of the child 1

– set out clear expectations and guidance for coordinators/visiting teachers and educators to implement a Te Tiriti-based/bicultural curriculum

– guide inclusive practice at all levels of the service

– usefully underpin high quality practice in all aspects of the service

– are based on principles of advocacy, equity and social justice

– reflect the rights of all children to a quality, inclusive early childhood education

Performance management

The service provider has up-to-date policies and procedures that support the recruitment, induction, appraisal and professional learning and development (PLD) of managers, coordinators/visiting teachers and educators.

  • Performance management successfully contributes to:

– the service achieving its vision and goals

– professional learning of service providers, coordinators/visiting teachers and educators.

Financial management

Spending is monitored through regular reporting.

  • An annual budget is well aligned to the service provider’s goals and priorities.
  • The budget reflects the priorities the service provider has for:

– promoting positive outcomes for children

– meeting health and safety requirements

– providing professional learning and development for coordinators/visiting teachers and educators.

Health and safety management

The service provider has effective systems to identify, monitor and report physical and emotional health and safety for all involved in the service.

  • Coordinators/visiting teachers monitor health and safety in homes and can verify that educators maintain homes to meet the required health and safety standard.
  • Practices that uphold good health and wellbeing for children are promoted.
  • Practices for recognising and responding to child abuse and neglect are understood by all those involved in the service.

Note: The Education (Home-based Education and Care) Regulations 2008 set the minimum requirements for health and safety.

Capacity building

Those responsible for governing and managing the service have a good understanding of, and capability to carry out their roles and responsibilities. There is a strong focus on continual improvement.

  • Service providers are committed to, and have the capability to recruit, manage and develop competent coordinators/visiting teachers and educators.
  • Personnel are well supported through induction and ongoing training. Processes to evaluate the effectiveness of these practices are implemented.
  • Service providers support ongoing PLD for coordinators/visiting teachers and educators according to their specific needs to improve practice.
  • Service providers, coordinators/visiting teachers undertake PLD and training to ensure they have current knowledge and the necessary skills when working with adults. This includes:

– supporting and coaching educators to provide high quality early childhood education and care through the understanding of and use of effective teaching strategies

– leading bicultural development and Tiriti-based practices

– promoting equity and social justice for children and their families through the rights of the child, and cross-cultural development and understanding.

Evaluation framework for Pou Ārahi

How effectively do service providers, coordinators/visiting teachers as leaders build capability within the service to promote positive learning outcomes for all children?

Priority questions

What does the service provider know about the effectiveness of practices in relation to:

– supporting Māori children to achieve success as Māori?

– supporting Pacific children to achieve success?

– supporting all children as individuals?

– responding to the interests, strengths and capabilities of diverse groups of children who attend the service and supporting them to achieve success?

  • How effectively do coordinators/visiting teachers and educators work in partnership with parents and whānau to achieve positive outcomes for all children?
  • How effective is the educational (pedagogical and curriculum) leadership of the service?
  • To what extent does the service provider (where applicable the umbrella organisation) promote and implement effective internal evaluation as a means to improve the quality of education and care for all children?

Supporting evaluation questions

How effectively does the service provider, with the coordinators/visiting teachers:

  • promote the vision and its associated goals?
  • promote quality learning and teaching?
  • build and support professional practice?
  • develop relationships and collaborative ways of working with all those involved in the home-based service’s community?
  • provide opportunities for leadership at all levels (teachers, educators, parents, whānau, and children)?

Examples of prompts for investigation

How is leadership defined and enacted in this service?

  • Who gets to lead and in relation to what?
  • How well do the service provider, coordinators/visiting teachers as leaders, understand the service’s philosophy, vision and goals?
  • How do these leaders promote the service’s philosophy?
  • How is the philosophy reflected in policies and practice?
  • What do these leaders do to promote strong partnerships with whānau Māori?
  • How do these leaders work in a responsive way with families of diverse groups of children, in particular those with special and diverse needs?
  • What role do the service provider/coordinators/visiting teachers, as the educational leaders, have in internal evaluation?
  • How does professional learning and development (PLD) contribute to the implementation of bicultural and Te Tiriti-based practice?
  • How does the service provider support coordinators/visiting teachers to develop their professional teaching practice for infants, toddlers and young children, and children with diverse needs? How is this knowledge shared with educators?
  • What PLD are service providers, coordinators/visiting teachers and educators involved in?
  • What PLD is planned for coordinators/visiting teachers and educators? Why? What determines this planning?
  • What PLD has the service provider, coordinators/visiting teachers and educators undertaken recently? What impact has this had on improving outcomes for children and for growing educator practice?
  • How does the service provider encourage and support coordinators/visiting teachers and educators to increase their cultural competencies?

Indicators for Pou Ārahi

ELEMENTS

EXAMPLES OF INDICATORS

Connecting elements

Pou Ārahi and partnerships with parents and whānau

Service providers, coordinators/visiting teachers and educators base relationships on respect, trust and reciprocity.

  • Service providers and coordinators/visiting teachers respectfully validate te ao Māori, and create opportunities for whānau Māori to voice their views. As leaders they support and coach educators to:

– value parent and whānau aspirations and expectations, and work collaboratively and responsively to achieve these

– effectively communicate with all families including those that are bi-or multilingual

– encourage and invite parents and whānau to take an active role in their children’s learning

– be responsive to parents’ and whānau aspirations, issues, concerns and questions

– strongly advocate for high quality education and care for infants, toddlers and young child children and their whānau.

 

Pou Ārahi and sustainability through internal evaluation

The service provider and coordinators/visiting teachers are focused on improving the quality of education and care through ongoing systematic internal evaluation.

  • The service provider implements effective quality assurance processes to meet the:

– Licensing Criteria for Home-based Education and Care Services 2008 and the prescribed Early Childhood Curriculum Framework, the English and the te reo Māori versions of the principles and strands from Te Whāriki; and

– other regulatory requirements contained in the regulations.

  • Internal evaluation is valued, championed and effectively led.
  • Internal evaluation includes the gathering and analysis of useful information from a range of sources.
  • The service provider supports coordinators/visiting teachers to critically reflect on their practice.
  • Coordinators/visiting teachers support and coach educators to reflect on and improve their practice.
  • Service providers, coordinators/visiting teachers and educators use data and information (evidence) to reflect on and improve practice.
  • Good use is made of resources and research to support internal evaluation.
  • The service provider, coordinators/visiting teachers and educators access professional learning and development to increase their individual and collective capability in internal evaluation.
  • The service provider ensures that all those involved in the service have opportunities to be involved in internal evaluation.
  • Reviews are documented and the service provider ensures that outcomes of reviews are shared with all those involved in the home-based community.

Contributing elements

Realising the vision and philosophy

The service provider, coordinators/visiting teachers and educators show a strong commitment to the philosophy, vision and goals of the service and give priority to equitable outcomes for all children.

  • The service provider promotes a shared understanding of the service’s philosophy, vision and goals among coordinators/visiting teachers and educators.
  • A high level of commitment to bicultural practice is evident.
  • The service provider and coordinators/visiting teachers ensure the service’s vision and goals reflect the holistic way children learn and grow.2

Establishing and developing the organisational culture of the service

Service providers, coordinators/visiting teachers and educators establish a culture in which children and their families/whānau are first and foremost valued, celebrated and affirmed.

  • A high level of relational trust is evident among all who are involved in the service. This environment is conducive to debate, negotiation, problem solving and critical reflection.
  • Collaborative ways of working are fostered with everyone involved in the service.

Building and supporting professional practice

Service providers and coordinators/visiting teachers have a strong commitment to teaching and learning that contributes to positive outcomes for all children.

  • As leaders they:

– support and coach educators to use high quality practices

– lead the development and implementation of a Tiriti-based curriculum

– encourage and support Māori to build their leadership capabilities

– encourage and support teachers and educators to build their leadership capabilities

– strengthen and promote engagement in bicultural practice

– uphold the highest standards for infants, toddlers and young children

– plan for PLD and identify and access training and development opportunities for educators.

  • Emergent leadership among coordinators/visiting teachers and where possible educators, is encouraged.

Evaluation framework for Mātauranga

How effectively is the curriculum provided in homes designed to promote positive learning outcomes for all children?

Priority questions

What does the service provider know about the effectiveness of its curriculum (design and planning) in:

– understanding of te ao Māori perspectives?

– supporting Māori children to achieve success as Māori?

– supporting Pacific children to achieve success?

– supporting children as individuals?

– responding to the interests, strengths and capabilities of diverse groups of children who attend the service and supporting them to achieve success?

  • To what extent does the curriculum provided in homes recognise and build on the knowledge and expertise children and their parents, family and whānau bring to the service?
  • How effective is internal evaluation in evaluating the impact of the curriculum in promoting positive learning outcomes for all children?

Supporting evaluation questions

How well do coordinators/visiting teachers and educators know infants, toddlers and young children and their parents and whānau?

  • How well are the aspirations and goals of parents and whānau understood by coordinators/visiting teachers and educators and reflected in the curriculum?
  • To what extent do coordinators/visiting teachers support, guide and coach educators to make curriculum decisions?
  • How well placed are educators to implement a curriculum that effectively responds to the interests and strengths of infants, toddlers and young children?
  • How effective are assessment and planning processes in enabling educators (with the support, guidance and coaching by coordinators/visiting teachers) to notice, recognise and respond to the strengths, interests and developing learning and dispositions to learn of infants, toddlers and young children?
  • To what extent is the curriculum based on the coordinators’/visiting teachers’:

– professional knowledge, curriculum and subject knowledge, and knowledge of learners

– understanding of te ao Māori perspectives?

– knowledge of the diverse cultural identities and the diverse needs and strengths of the parents, families and whānau that make up the home-based service’s community?

Examples of prompts for investigation

How do coordinators/visiting teachers and educators get to know children and their parents and whānau?

  • What informs curriculum decisions in this service?
  • How are emphases and priorities for the curriculum determined? Who is involved?
  • What processes are in place to involve children, parents and whānau in curriculum decisions?
  • How do whānau Māori contribute to curriculum decisions? Hapū and iwi?
  • What role do whānau Māori have in reviewing the curriculum?
  • How does the service provider value and draw on the expertise of parents, family, whānau and the wider community in planning and reviewing its curriculum?
  • How do assessment processes enable educators, with support and coaching from coordinators/visiting teachers, to notice, recognise and respond to the strengths, interests and capabilities of infants, toddlers and young children? How well is the continuity of progress and learning for all children documented?
  • What processes are in place to plan a responsive curriculum?
  • How does the service provider evaluate the impact of its curriculum on children’s learning and development?

Indicators for Mātauranga

ELEMENTS

EXAMPLES OF INDICATORS

Connecting elements

Mātauranga and partnerships with parents and whānau

Coordinators/visiting teachers, through visits to educators and contact with parents and whānau, support the development of strong, responsive, reciprocal and respectful partnerships to support children’s sense of belonging.

  • Coordinators/visiting teachers and educators value and acknowledge:

– parents’ and whānau aspirations for their children. They take account of these in assessment and planning processes and share children’s learning with parents

– the knowledge, skill and expertise that whānau Māori bring to the service

– children’s place as part of a wider whānau and iwi.

  • Parent and whānau perspectives are used to inform the curriculum to enhance connections and provide continuity for children.
  • Coordinators/visiting teachers can demonstrate how educators:

– provide opportunities for parents and whānau to contribute their perspectives to the design of the curriculum in the home and community.

  • Coordinators/visiting teachers and educators work in partnership with external agencies if required, and the parents and whānau of children who have special needs, or diverse needs, to improve and enhance their learning.

Mātauranga and sustainability through internal evaluation

Service providers and coordinators/visiting teachers use internal evaluation to inquire into the effectiveness of curriculum practices. They:

– question whose knowledge is valued and reflected in the curriculum as part of internal evaluation

– evaluate the impact of curriculum decisions on infants, toddlers and young children and their families

– use Te Whāriki and current research as a basis for evaluating the curriculum.

Contributing elements

Professional knowledge

The principles and strands of Te Wh¯ ariki underpin the curriculum provided in the home-based service.

  • Coordinators/visiting teachers:

– understand and value the home setting, where everyday life experiences provide opportunities for learning

– know about current theories of learning, teaching and development and use this knowledge to support educators to design the curriculum in homes and decide how they structure time and space and use of resources

– learn about Māori theories and philosophies to assist educators in the development of a culturally appropriate curriculum

– encourage educators to reflect on their personal values, beliefs, attitudes and philosophy when making decisions about curriculum

– recognise and value the importance of children learning through play and meaningful everyday experiences around the home and in the community.

  • Coordinators/visiting teachers:

– support educators to explain and share the rationale for curriculum decisions with parents and whānau.

  • Coordinators/visiting teachers and educators take personal responsibility for learning:

– te reo Māori, using correct pronunciation and integrating te reo Māori meaningfully into the everyday experiences

– about the languages, cultures and identities of all children attending.

Curriculum and subject knowledge

Coordinators/visiting teachers can explain how the provided curriculum aligns to the principles and strands of Te Whāriki. Over time they support educators to gain this understanding.

  • Coordinators/visiting teachers’ and educators’ knowledge of te ao Māori including waiata, haka, pūrakau, pakiwaitara, karakia and whānau helps them to extend children’s thinking and foster new understandings to value children’s parents and whānau culture and identity.
  • Coordinators/visiting teachers support and coach educators to develop:

– an understanding of te ao Māori perspectives across all aspects of the curriculum

– sufficient knowledge, including subject and general knowledge, to recognise and build on children’s existing understandings, working theories and dispositions

– a depth of subject knowledge that enables them to respond meaningfully to infants’, toddlers’ and young children’s learning embedded in their interests and enquiries.

  • Where coordinators/visiting teachers and educators do not have the necessary content knowledge to support children’s interests and enquiries, they provide resources and access information with children (e.g. through books, the internet, or by asking community specialists and family elders, tangata whenua, kaumātua, kuia, whānau).

Knowledge of learning and of children as learners

Coordinators/visiting teachers have information that shows how they work with educators to appreciate the experiences that infants, toddlers and young children bring with them to the early childhood service. These experiences are acknowledged and provide a basis for decisions about the curriculum.

  • Coordinators/visiting teachers can demonstrate how educators:

– understand the child in the context of family/whānau and wider community

– value Māori children’s identities as Māori as the foundation for, and key to, their success as Māori

– recognise and acknowledge the whakapapa of Māori children

– encourage children to contribute to the development of a curriculum that is responsive to their culture, languages and identities

– provide socially meaningful, culturally relevant experiences in the home and community

– provide a curriculum that is responsive to infants’, toddlers’ and young children’s interests

– have an understanding of each child as a unique learner including their ‘working theories’ (knowledge, skills and dispositions)

– carefully listen to, recognise and document infants’, toddlers’ and young children’s working theories, and encourage their development through dialogue and providing further relevant meaningful experiences.

Knowledge of children’s rights

Within the curriculum coordinators/visiting teachers have information that demonstrates how educators are encouraged and supported to provide learning opportunities that:

– provide opportunities for children to discuss and negotiate rights, fairness and justice with adults

– allow children to have a say within the day-to-day curriculum, their views are listened to, respected and responded to

– support children to develop the characteristics of a global and local citizen, including collective responsibility for problem solving in a changing world

– support children to understand and contribute to decisions about their learning

Knowledge of culture and context

Service providers, coordinators/visiting teachers and educators acknowledge whakapapa as integral to the development of a sense of self, belonging and connectedness.

  • Coordinators/visiting teachers encourage and support educators to learn about local hapu and iwi, their history, sites of significance and kawa, and incorporate this into the programme in a meaningful and respectful manner.
  • Coordinators/visiting teachers and educators are aware of indigenous knowledge unique to Aotearoa New Zealand and what this means for the service’s curriculum.
  • Coordinators/visiting teachers support and coach educators, where necessary, to:

– understand kaupapa Māori concepts such as manaakitanga, wairuatanga, whanaungatanga and kaitiakitanga are integral to curriculum decisions and how these look in day-to-day practice

– recognise the diversity within children of Pacific heritage

– understand that language and culture are key to Pacific children’s identity and a positive, confident sense of self

– seek ways to maintain the children’s connections to and fluency in their first language and reflect these in day-to-day practice

– seek ways to maintain children’s connections to their cultural identity and reflect this in day-to-day practice.

Knowledge of family and community

Coordinators/visiting teachers can demonstrate how educators are supported and encouraged to:

– recognise that Māori have a unique culture and history based on strong genealogical links and relationships

– engage with children and their parents’ language and culture to make the setting more meaningful for their wider community of learners

– view each family and whānau and their knowledge of their child as an integral part of the service’s learning community

– establish strong connections with the child’s home life.

Assessment and identity

Assessment for learning practices are formative, underpinned by current research and actively involve children, parents, family and whānau. Coordinators/visiting teachers are knowledgeable practitioners who understand children’s learning.

Coordinators/visiting teachers can show how, over time, educators are supported and encouraged to use assessment practices that:

– build children’s identity as a successful learner

– acknowledge the social and cultural worlds, and ways of learning of all children

– support the development of a strong Māori identity in Māori children, through reflecting Māori perspectives of the child, their world and their place in the world

– acknowledge and value Māori children’s cultural capital and their learning achievements are celebrated

– value and respond to Pacific cultures, knowledge and ways of learning

– reflect the language/identity of diverse learners.

Assessment process

Coordinators/visiting teachers can demonstrate how educators, over time, are supported and encouraged to use assessment practices that:

– focus on enhancing dispositional learning, as well as skills and ways of knowing

– reflect the learning that is valued in the home-based setting

– shows deepening and the increasing complexity of children’s learning

– reflect the complexity of children’s relationships with people, places and things and the child as a learner in the home-based setting

– reflect a credit-based approach that pays attention to children’s strengths, interests and developing learning and dispositions

– are available to the children so that they can revisit and share their learning with others.

  • Ongoing observation of children in everyday learning experiences builds a picture of what children are: puzzling; curious; developing understandings about; knowing; understanding; feeling; interested in; and can do.
  • Assessment includes the perspectives of the child, parent, educator and coordinator/ visiting teacher that enhances the interpretation and analysis of learning.

Assessment purpose

Coordinators/visiting teachers support and coach educators to use a range of approaches for different assessment purposes. These include:

– understanding and supporting children’s learning and development

– identifying progress, learning and next learning steps, and showing the difference these have made to children’s success as learners

– identifying and understanding children’s capabilities and where they may need additional support

– evaluating how well the curriculum is helping the service to achieve its outcomes.

  • Assessments illustrate and support continuity in learning and demonstrate children’s progress in a range of contexts.
  • Assessment practices provide parents and whānau with a way of contributing to their children’s learning.

Curriculum

  • Coordinators/visiting teachers, in partnership with educators, analyse assessment information to understand children’s learning pathways and then plan to continue and strengthen them.
  • When planning the curriculum, a wide range of information about children as individuals should be used. Including information from other sources will provide a more comprehensive view about a child as a learner.
  • Planning for individuals and groups of children is driven by evidence-based formative assessment.
  • Coordinators/visiting teachers systematically reflect on, affirm, support and develop educators’ practice.

Evaluation Framework For Tikanga Whakaako

How well do teaching and learning practices promote positive learning outcomes for all children?

Priority questions

What does the service provider know (through internal evaluation) about the effectiveness of tikanga whakaako in:

– supporting Māori children to achieve success as Māori?

– supporting Pacific children to achieve success?

– supporting children as individuals?

– responding to the interests, strengths and capabilities of diverse groups of children who attend the service and supporting them to achieve success?

  • To what extent do teaching and learning practices promote partnerships with parents and whānau?
  • How effective is internal evaluation in improving teaching and learning practices to promote positive learning outcomes for all children in this service?

Supporting evaluation questions

  • How effectively do coordinators/visiting teachers support and coach educators to:

– use teaching practices that contribute to positive learning outcomes for infants, toddlers and young children?

– use teaching practices that enhance children’s sense of themselves as successful learners?

– engage in respectful, reciprocal and responsive relationships with all children and their parents, family and whānau?

– respond to strengths, interests and capabilities of all children?

– implement practices that reflect the principles of Te Whāriki?

– use teaching practices that are responsive to children with special needs and capabilities?

– interact with children to extend and challenge their thinking?

– establish a learning environment that contributes to positive learning outcomes for infants, toddlers and young children?

– use teaching strategies and resources that support children to become confident in Aotearoa New Zealand’s dual cultural heritage?

– engage in reflective practice that leads them to question and modify their practice?

– support continuity and promote connections that add to parent, family and whānau practices, not undermine them?

  • How well are transitions managed for children when they are: settling into the service; moving within the service; and when starting school?

Examples of prompts for investigation

What do coordinators/visiting teachers know about the effectiveness of educators’ practice in promoting positive learning outcomes for:

– infants and toddlers

– all young children, including diverse groups.

  • In what ways do teaching and learning practices:

– engage, extend and deepen children’s knowledge, skills and dispositions?

– recognise and respond to children’s developing learning and dispositions to learn, their strengths, interests and capabilities?

– promote the language, culture and identity of Māori children, Pacific children and children with other cultural heritages?

– support and respond to diverse groups of children, including those who have special needs and capabilities?

  • What do coordinators/visiting teachers know about the effectiveness of educator practice for promoting:

– learning environments in homes that reflect and support the learning of infants, toddlers and young children?

– transition processes that support children as they transition into, within and from the home-based service to another early childhood service or school?

  • What opportunities do service providers, coordinators/visiting teachers and educators have to reflect on and discuss their practice with other coordinators/visiting teachers, educators and service providers to build a community of learners?
  • In what ways are educators supported by coordinators/visiting teachers to be intentional and deliberate in their teaching?
  • What opportunities do parents and whānau have to meet the coordinator/visiting teacher/educator to develop their child’s learning programme, and have input and give feedback on the quality of their child’s learning experiences and the home environment?
  • What do coordinators/visiting teachers know about the relationships between educators, parents, family and whānau, including caregivers?

Indicators for Tikanga Whakaako

ELEMENTS

EXAMPLES OF INDICATORS

Note: There are separate indicators specifically for children up to two years of age at the end of this section

Connecting elements

Tikanga Whakaako and partnerships with parents and whānau

  • The service is welcoming to all children and their parents and whānau.
  • Families and educators are carefully matched to support children’s wellbeing.
  • Partnerships are based on genuine attitudes of acceptance, respect and willingness to listen and respond.
  • Parents’ and whānau aspirations for children’s learning are sought, valued and responded to.
  • Coordinators/visiting teachers and educators incorporate the knowledge, skills and expertise (cultural advantage) that whānau Māori bring to the service.
  • Coordinators/visiting teachers and educators ensure that interactions with Pacific parents and communities are culturally responsive.
  • Coordinators/visiting teachers and educators enable parents, family and whānau to have a sense of ownership, control and involvement in the educational and care decisions, including any interventions made for their child.

Tikanga Whakaako and sustainability through internal evaluation

Coordinators/visiting teachers support and coach educators to:

  • systematically evaluate the quality of their own practice and the impact of this on outcomes for children and families
  • engage in discussion and debate that challenges and informs improvement of their practice.
  • Coordinators/visiting teachers provide regular constructive feedback that enables educators to reflect on their practice to support improved learning outcomes for children.
  • Internal evaluation:

– includes a focus on the impact of the service’s bicultural curriculum for all children

– includes a focus on the impact of the service’s support for children with diverse needs

– leads to improved practices that enable and are based on principles of advocacy, equity and social justice.

Contributing elements

Relationships and interactions with children

Coordinators/visiting teachers have evidence of how they have supported and coached educators to:

– develop positive, trusting, responsive and reciprocal relationships with children

– take time to genuinely listen to children and explore the deeper meanings in their learning

– support children to follow their interests and lead their learning

– foster children’s language development and communication skills in a range of domains

– provide for authentic dialogue in meaningful contexts

– ask open questions of children to allow their interests to lead learning

– actively promote peer interactions to support learning

– use te reo Māori in ways that recognise it as a living language, indigenous to Aotearoa New Zealand

– acknowledge what children bring in relation to their culture, language, identity and life experience.

  • Children’s talk is encouraged, accepted and respected.

Children’s rights

Coordinators/visiting teachers have evidence that educators are encouraged and supported to:

– talk with children about decisions that affect them

– respect children’s rights to express a point of view and be involved in decisions that affect them

– empower children to take increased responsibility for: the wellbeing of themselves, others and the group; the emerging curriculum and their immediate and wider environments.

Effective teaching practice

Coordinators/visiting teachers keep records/evidence that demonstrate how educators are encouraged and supported to:

– be attuned to the variety of ways children express and explore their working theories, and use a range of strategies to encourage the development of these theories

– use a range of teaching strategies and practices to respond to the cultures, languages and identities of all children

– be intentional in the way they recognise and respond to all opportunities to engage in, and extend, children’s learning

– engage in sustained, shared interactions that extend children’s thinking and value their contribution to the learning experience

– empower children to make choices and lead their own learning

– reflect an understanding of the essence of the Māori child for example mana, wairua and mauri

– support children’s problem-solving and experimentation

– make links across time and activities by revisiting children’s ideas, interests and deepening understanding

– foster children’s learning dispositions

– provide children with specific feedback that acknowledges their effort and success

– understand the concept of ako and support children to change roles between teacher and learner

– consistently implement routines, involving children as much as possible in these, and give children a sense of security in being able to predict what will happen next

– promote the development of children’s learning dispositions

– support children to use the home and community as a valued learning environment

– engage children in sustainable environmental practices

– value and promote the concept of tuakana teina

– empower children to take responsibility and leadership roles

– make learning meaningful, challenging, and fun/enjoyable.

Literacy and mathematics

Links to the school curriculum

Domains

Coordinators/visiting teachers are knowledgeable; they use current research to inform their thinking; they are familiar with and understand the links between Te Whāriki and The New Zealand Curriculum (NZC).3 They share this knowledge with educators and support them to provide meaningful learning experiences across the curriculum domains.

Coordinators/visiting teachers have evidence to demonstrate how educators are encouraged and supported to build a repertoire of literacy practices, using the home and community environments.

These enable children to:

– observe, listen and play with language

– use literacy in play for a purpose

– critically question.

  • Coordinators/visiting teachers have evidence that demonstrates how educators are encouraged and supported to:

– provide good quality language resources to support children’s first languages, including Māori and Pacific

– expose children to, and engage them in, meaningful play-based experiences to develop print awareness and alphabet knowledge.

  • Coordinators/visiting teachers have evidence that demonstrates how educators are encouraged and supported to enhance children’s learning through the provision of meaningful and interesting opportunities to:

– use mathematics in play and everyday life

– use open-ended resources for mathematical exploration

– engage in games where they can vary the level of challenge

– engage with children’s understanding of literacy and mathematical concepts from a te ao Māori perspective

– to make sense of the natural, social, physical and material worlds

– to be creative and imaginative

– use information communication technologies (ICT) in meaningful ways.

Te Tiriti-based practice

Bicultural curriculum

Coordinators/visiting teachers can demonstrate how they support/coach educators to:

– be open to ‘listening to culture’, allowing space and time for whānau Māori to tell their stories, create their own images, and listen to their own voices

– incorporate the principles of Te Tiriti o Waitangi (partnership, participation and protection)

– include Māori concepts, knowledge, skills, attitudes, reo, practices, customs, values and beliefs into learning experiences.

  • Coordinators/visiting teachers support the use of te reo Māori.
  • Coordinator/visiting teachers’ practice reflects the competencies in Tātaiako. 4

Inclusive practices

Coordinators/visiting teachers can demonstrate how they support and coach educators to:

– share a philosophy and commitment to inclusive education that includes particular beliefs and values based on social justice, fairness, human rights and the rights of the child

– take full responsibility for the education and care of children with special needs, following the child to ensure their needs are met so that they can participate in all aspects of the curriculum, alongside their peers

– identify and remove barriers to a child’s full acceptance, participation, and learning

– help all children and families to celebrate their differences by reinforcing the rights of individuals and groups to be different

– provide children with positive ways of thinking about and understanding diversity, disability and the place of children with disabilities in early childhood settings and communities

– enable children to explore gender and gender roles in ways that are non-stereotypical and open-ended.

Learning environment

Service providers and coordinators/visiting teachers clearly communicate to parents and educators that the home and the community are the child’s learning environments. They have systems and processes to be assured that resources and environments:

– are safe, while offering challenges and interest that invite children to explore and become fully involved in a wide variety of activities and experiences

– provide opportunities for children to make choices linked to their interests

– encourage critical thought, wondering and creativity

– encourage exploration that is meaningful, challenging and enjoyable for children

– support children to choose, experience challenge and revisit prior learning

– include languages and symbols linked to children’s cultural backgrounds, making visible and valuing the diversity of Pacific heritages.

  • Coordinators /visiting teachers have information/evidence to demonstrate how educators are encouraged and supported to:

– include a wide range of natural materials and cultural artefacts that reflect the cultural backgrounds of children and their parents and whānau

– encourage children to be involved in decisions about the resources and space in the learning environment

– organise and manage the learning environment so that challenging behaviour is minimised or less likely to occur.

Transitions in and between environments, people and school

Service providers and coordinators/visiting teachers, in partnership with parents, families and whānau and educators, implement transition practices that:

– nurture children’s sense of belonging during and after transitions into and within the service, to other ECE services and when moving to school

– honour the cultural uniqueness that all children bring with them

– foster children’s friendships and engagement in a group to enhance their security and confidence at settling-in and during transition times

– maintain effective partnerships to support transition between families, homes, and schools.

Children up to Two Years of Age

These indicators focus on factors that contribute to high qualiuty provision for chuldren up to two years of age. They are particularly focused on Tikanga Whakaako and Mātauranga.

ELEMENTS

EXAMPLES OF INDICATORS

Connecting elements

Positive, sensitive and responsive interactions

Coordinators/visiting teachers carefully select and match the educator, parent, family and whānau to:

– include consideration of values, cultural identity and belief systems

– foster and respect parental choice.

  • Coordinators/visiting teachers can demonstrate how they encourage and support educators to:

– develop secure child/educator family relationships to promote the development of children’s positive sense of self

– provide responsive empathetic caregiving which supports infants’ and toddlers’ need for strong and secure attachments

– respond sensitively to each child’s changing needs and preferences.

  • The social and emotional climate created by a responsive curriculum supports infants’ and toddlers’ engagement and learning.
  • Coordinators/visiting teachers can demonstrate how they support/coach educators to:

– develop practices that reflect a commitment to the provision of high quality education care

– learn about te ao Māori perspectives to support their care of Māori infants and toddlers

– understand the concept of aroha; including compassion, respect, connectedness and obligation to whānau, to foster appropriate care and education for Māori infants and toddlers

– support continuity of practices that take into account parent, family and whānau requirements

– engage in one-to-one responsive interactions (where educators follow the child’s lead)

– recognise that consistency and continuity are critical in establishing a secure foundation for young children’s care and education

– respect children’s rights to be informed and consulted about decisions that affect them

– know the children they care for and the level of communication and language used by each child

– be responsive to children’s temperaments, preferences and interests

– interpret and respond to the subtle cues offered by infants and toddlers including body language; for example gaze and pointing

– be flexible and respond to the needs and rhythms of children up to two years of age

– offer infants and toddlers choices about what is to happen to them and wait for them to respond to the choices offered

– be available to infants and toddlers, supporting them in their learning, but resisting the urge to intervene unnecessarily in their problem-solving efforts and mastery of their own physical development

– be sensitive and responsive to differences in children’s social and cultural backgrounds

– understand and value the importance of learning through play

– recognise and use learning opportunities within routines

– maintain a calm, slow pace in which younger children have space and time to lead their learning.

Learning environment

Coordinators/visiting teachers can demonstrate how they support educators to ensure that:

– home and community environments provide for the safety, physical and emotional wellbeing, intellectual stimulation and social support of very young children

– very young children have easy access to an environment that is well resourced and encourages exploration

– infants and toddlers experience an environment where they are not exposed to ongoing and harmful stress and where there is support from an adult who can soothe and comfort them

– there are comfortable, safe spaces that cater for young children who are not yet mobile or able to sit by themselves, and for those who are crawling and learning to walk.

Structural aspects of quality for infants and toddlers

Responsibility for these aspects lies mainly with Pou Whakahaere and Pou Ārahi

The service provider has policies and procedures to promote infants and toddlers sense of wellbeing.

  • Coordinators/visiting teachers can demonstrate how:

– they support continuity of connection between children, their parents, families and whānau and their educator/s.

– educators build positive relationships with infants and toddlers and their parents, family and whānau.

  • The service provider has systems and processes to be assured that the adult-to-child ratios as outlined in the home-based regulations (2008) are adhered to.
  • A positive relationship between all those involved in the service facilitates low turnover of educators.
  • Educators caring for infants are offered appropriate professional learning opportunities.
  • Coordinators/visiting teachers that support and coach educators have:

– relevant qualifications, knowledge and skills to support infants and toddlers to experience positive outcomes

– professional knowledge, that includes current research on high quality care and education practices for infants and toddlers.