Part 6: ERO's evaluation indicators for education reviews in hospital-based education and care services

Introduction

ERO’s evaluation indicators are about the factors that contribute to children’s learning and promote their wellbeing in hospital-based services. The evaluation indicators:

  • help to determine if high quality is being achieved
  • are indicative of quality – they do not represent quality practice on their own
  • are statements that can be verified through data collection and analysis.

They are not requirements and hospital-based services are not expected to demonstrate that they have achieved all practices outlined in the indicators. The primary purpose of ERO’s evaluation indicators is to promote improvement.

Indicator development

ERO’s evaluation indicators for education reviews in hospital-based services draw on He Pou Tātaki, ERO’s methodology for the review of centre-based and home-based early childhood services. The indicators in He Pou Tātaki are based on current national and international evaluation and research, ERO’s national evaluations, and many years of reviewing experience within ERO.

This publication significantly revises the indicators in He Pou Tātaki to be specifically relevant to hospital-based education and care services. It is the result of collaborative work between ERO and representatives from the hospital-based sector. Where there was a lack of research, articles or other material were used if they communicated ideas or aspects of best practice not well explored in research.

The indicators as a resource

The evaluation indicators are a resource that informs the judgements that ERO reviewers make about different aspects of the performance of hospital-based services. They are also intended to clarify the basis on which ERO evaluates performance and to assist in the services’ internal evaluation.

For ERO, the evaluation indicators:

  • keep reviews focused on how well placed the service is to contribute to each child’s learning and promote their wellbeing
  • support the implementation of Ngā Pou Here, the review framework
  • keep the importance of success for Māori children to the fore
  • promote consistency by providing guidance for reviewers
  • provide a basis for discussion with service personnel about what they know about the quality of education and care for children who attend their service.

For hospital-based services, the evaluation indicators:

  • make the review process transparent
  • help them to understand the basis on which ERO makes its judgements
  • focus them on factors that contribute to each child’s learning and wellbeing
  • provide a tool to assist them with their own internal evaluation
  • help to build their evaluation capacity by modelling evaluative questions and evidence-based judgements.

How the indicators are organised

The indicators are organised within each of the four Pou of Ngā Pou Here.

At the beginning of each set of Pou there are indicators for partnership with parents and families/whānau (Haere Kōtui) and sustainability through internal evaluation (Arotake). These elements weave through and connect each Pou. As a result there is some overlap across the different sections.

The evaluation indicators for each Pou are preceded by questions to guide evaluation and review of that Pou.

The evaluation questions and prompts

Priority questions

These questions ask what the service knows through its internal evaluation. They ask about the effectiveness of partnerships and internal evaluation in relation to each Pou.

Supporting evaluation questions

These are the key evaluative questions that highlight the main aspects of each Pou.

Investigative prompts

These prompts further unpack the priority questions and the supporting evaluation questions. They are examples rather than a definitive list.

The indicators

Connecting elements

These refer to indicators related to Haere Kōtui (partnerships with parents and families/whānau) and Arotake (sustainability through internal evaluation). Because Haere Kōtui and Arotake are woven across each Pou there is a connecting elements indicator section for each Pou.

Contributing elements

This is a way of grouping the indicators according to particular aspects of practice or common themes for particular indicators.

Using the indicators as part of internal evaluation

  • The indicators can be used:

~  to foster greater depth of understanding about an element or area for development

~  as a tool for exploring an aspect of high quality practice

~  as a measure to evaluate whether high quality is being achieved.

  • The investigative questions are a good starting point to reflect on an aspect of practice.

Evaluation framework for Pou Whakahaere

How effectively do the service’s philosophy, vision, goals and systems contribute to children’s learning and promote their wellbeing?

Priority questions

What does the service know about the effectiveness of its philosophy, vision, goals and systems in:

  • supporting the languages, cultures and identities of each child?
  • responding to the interests, strengths and capabilities of each child who attends the service

How effectively does the service promote partnerships with parents and families/whānau?

How effectively does internal evaluation guide decision making and lead to improvements in the provision of high-quality education and care in hospital-based settings?

Supporting evaluation questions

To what extent does the service:

  • value and implement the principles of Te Tiriti o Waitangi through its policies and practices?
  • involve parents and families/whānau in internal evaluation and include their aspirations and expectations for their children’s learning in the vision and associated goals and plans?
  • plan (long and short term) and implement strategies that focus on improvement?
  • have policies that guide practice?
  • effectively manage finances, resourcing, health and safety?
  • appoint staff with relevant knowledge and expertise and provide for ongoing staff development?
  • use robust internal evaluation processes to guide decision-making and improve quality?

Examples of prompts for investigation

  • In what ways do plans, policies and practices demonstrate evidence of a commitment to the principles of Te Tiriti o Waitangi?
  • What processes are used to consult with parents, families/whānau and the wider community?
  • How does the service find out what aspirations and expectations parents and families/whānau have for their children?
  • How is this information used?
  • What informs the service’s long and short-term planning? How does it focus on children’s learning and wellbeing?
  • How has the statement of philosophy been developed? Has it been reviewed? Who was involved? Whose values and beliefs does it reflect?
  • How does the service ensure alignment between policy and practice?
  • In what ways does internal evaluation link to the service’s vision and associated goals?
  • What internal evaluation of governance and management practices is undertaken?
  • What internal evaluation is planned? What internal evaluation is undertaken in a spontaneous way?
  • What is the impact of internal evaluation? What difference does it make for all children and their families?

Indicators for Pou Whakahaere

ELEMENTS

EXAMPLES OF INDICATORS

Connecting elements

Pou Whakahaere and partnerships with parents, family and whānau

The service’s philosophy, vision and associated goals and plans are influenced by the aspirations parents, and families/whānau have for their children.

  • Māori are acknowledged as tangata whenua and the importance of Te Tiriti o Waitangi is strengthened through partnerships, policies and practices.
  • Parents and families/whānau are consulted, have opportunities to contribute to internal evaluation and to be involved in decision-making about their child.
  • Appropriate physical spaces are provided for conversations with and among HPS, parents and families/whānau and interdisciplinary teams.

Pou Whakahaere and sustainability through internal evaluation

There is compelling evidence that internal evaluation is well understood and used to inquire into and evaluate the effectiveness of policies, programmes and practices.

  • Expectations/guidelines/procedures are documented to effectively guide internal evaluation.
  • Internal evaluation:

-          includes all aspects of the operation of the service

-          is focused on promoting quality

-          is ongoing and responsive to identified priorities

-          focuses on progress towards the service’s vision and goals.

  • Internal evaluation informs:

-          decision-making at a governance level including priorities, plans, policies and actions

-          professional learning and development (PLD) programmes.

  • The impact of change made as a result of internal evaluation is well monitored over time.

Contributing elements

Vision

A clear vision sets direction for the service. The service’s vision:

-          includes reference to the bicultural heritage of Aotearoa New  Zealand

-          is responsive to the impact of illness, hospitalisation and medical events on children, parents and families/whānau

-          guides long and short-term planning; and reflects a commitment to high quality early childhood education for all children in a hospital-based setting.

Philosophy

Service leaders and HPS can articulate/demonstrate how the philosophy is enacted in practice.

The service’s philosophy:

-          is developed collaboratively by leaders and HPS

-          is clearly documented and regularly reviewed

-          recognises the value of te reo me ona tikanga Māori and the bicultural    heritage of Aotearoa New Zealand

-          outlines the hospital-based service’s vision and goals to contribute to children’s learning and promote their wellbeing.

Strategic direction

The service has evidence to demonstrate the achievement of its vision and goals.

  • Planning (long and short-term) clearly identifies the service’s priorities to promote the learning and wellbeing of each child in the hospital-based service.
  • Goals are supported by appropriate actions and resources to enable them to be achieved.
  • Progress towards identified goals is systematically monitored.

Policy framework and guidance

The service’s policies and associated procedures:

-          acknowledge Te Tiriti o Waitangi and Māori as tangata whenua

-          set out clear expectations and guidance for HPS to implement Te Tiriti-based/ bicultural practices and curriculum

-          take into account the Rights of the Child (UNCRC)

-          promote high quality practice based on the principles of advocacy, inclusion, quality, equity and social justice.

Performance management

Performance management contributes to the service achieving its vision and goals.

The service has up-to-date policies and procedures that support the recruitment, induction, appraisal and professional learning and development (PLD) of competent leaders and HPS.

Financial management

Expenditure is monitored through regular reporting.

  • An annual budget reflects the priorities the service provider has for:

-          contributing to children’s learning and wellbeing in this hospital-based service

-          meeting health and safety requirements

-          providing professional learning and development for leaders and HPS.

Health and safety management

The service has effective systems to monitor the physical and emotional health and safety for all involved in the service.

Note: The Education (Hospital-based Services) Regulations 2008 set the requirements for health and safety.

Capacity building

Those responsible for leading the service have a good understanding of, and the capability to carry out, their respective roles and responsibilities. There is a strong focus on continual improvement.

  • A commitment and capability to recruit, manage and develop competent HPS is evident.
  • Personnel are well supported through induction and training that relates to the specific knowledge and skills required for working in a hospital-based service.
  • Leaders and HPS undertake professional learning and development to ensure they have current knowledge and the necessary skills to improve practice and provide high quality early childhood education within a hospital-based context.

This includes:

-          leading bicultural development and Tiriti-based practices

-          advocacy for equity and social justice for children and their families/whānau through cross-cultural development and understanding the Rights of the Child (UNCRC).

Evaluation framework for Pou Ārahi

How effectively does this service build the capability of leaders to contribute to children’s learning and promote their wellbeing?

Priority questions

What do leaders know about the effectiveness of practices in relation to:

  • supporting the language/s, culture/s and identity of each child?
  • responding to the interests, strengths and capabilities of each child who attends the service?

How effectively do leaders work in partnership with parents and families/whānau to contribute to children’s learning and promote their wellbeing?

How effective is the educational (pedagogical and curriculum) leadership of the service?

To what extent do leaders promote and implement effective internal evaluation as a means to improve the quality of education and care?

Supporting evaluation questions

How effectively do leaders:

  • promote the vision of the hospital-based service and its associated goals?
  • promote quality learning and teaching?
  • build and support professional practice?
  • develop relationships and collaborative ways of working?
  • provide opportunities for leadership at all levels? (hospital play specialists, parents and families/whānau, children, the wider community

Examples of prompts for investigation

How is leadership defined and enacted in this service?

  • How well do leaders understand and promote the service’s philosophy, vision and goals?
  • What do these leaders do to promote strong partnerships and work in a responsive way with families?
  • What role do leaders have in internal evaluation?
  • What PLD have leaders and HPS undertaken recently? What impact has this had? What PLD is planned?
  • How does PLD contribute to the implementation of bicultural and Te Tiriti-based practices?
  • How do leaders and HPS increase their cultural competencies?
  • How do leaders support HPS to develop their professional teaching practice, including the additional knowledge and skills required within a hospital-based service?

Indicators for Pou Ārahi

ELEMENTS

EXAMPLES OF INDICATORS

Connecting elements

Pou Ārahi and partnerships with parents, family and whānau

Leaders base relationships on respect, trust and reciprocity. Leaders and hospital play specialists:

-          respectfully validate te ao Māori

-          work collaboratively with parents and families/whānau, are responsive to concerns and questions, value their aspirations and expectations and encourage them to take an active role in the hospital-based setting

-          communicate effectively with families who are bi- or multilingual

-          strongly advocate for children and their families/whānau.

Pou Ārahi and sustainability through internal evaluation

Leaders are focused on improving the quality of education and care through ongoing systematic internal evaluation.

  • Effective quality assurance processes are implemented to meet  the:

-          Licensing Criteria for Hospital-based Education and Care Services 2008

-          the prescribed Early Childhood Curriculum Framework

-          other requirements included in the regulations.

  • Internal evaluation is valued, effectively led and includes the gathering and analysis of useful information from a range of sources.
  • HPS increase their individual and collective capability in internal evaluation.
  • HPS have time to critically reflect on and use evidence and research to improve their practice.
  • All those involved in the service have opportunities to be involved in internal evaluation.
  • Internal evaluation is documented and outcomes shared with those involved in the service.

Contributing elements

Realising the vision and philosophy

Leaders show a strong commitment to the philosophy, vision and goals of the service.

  • A shared understanding of the service’s philosophy, vision and goals is promoted.
  • A high level of commitment to bicultural practice is apparent and the service’s vision and goals are focused on children’s learning and wellbeing.

Establishing and organisational developing the culture of the service

Leaders establish a culture in which children, their parents and families/whānau are first and foremost valued, celebrated and affirmed for who they are.

  • A high level of relational trust is evident among all who are involved in the service and is conducive to debate, negotiation, problem solving and critical reflection.

Collaborative ways of working are fostered with everyone involved in the service, including the wider health-care organisation.

Building and supporting professional practice

Leaders have a strong commitment to practices that contribute to children’s learning and promote their wellbeing.

  • Leaders and hospital play specialists:

–  support the development and implementation of a Tiriti-based curriculum and engagement in bicultural practices

–  ensure their practices reflect the rights of all children to a high quality, inclusive hospital-based curriculum

–  plan for PLD and identify and access training and development opportunities.

Emergent leadership among staff is encouraged.

Evaluation Framework for Mātauranga

How effectively is this service’s curriculum designed to contribute to children’s learning and promote their wellbeing?

Priority questions

What does the service know about the effectiveness of its curriculum (design and planning) in:

  • supporting the language/s, culture/s and identity of each child?
  • responding to the interests, strengths and capabilities of each child in the hospital-based setting?

To what extent does this service’s curriculum respond to and build upon the knowledge and experiences that children, parents and families/whānau bring to the service, especially for those children who experience multiple admissions and/or transitions?

How effective is internal evaluation in evaluating the impact of the service’s curriculum on each child’s learning and wellbeing?

Supporting evaluation questions

  • How well do HPS know and respond to children, their parents and families/whānau?
  • How well are the aspirations and goals of parents and families/whānau understood by HPS and reflected in the curriculum?
  • How effective are assessment and planning processes in enabling HPS to notice, recognise and respond to the strengths, interests and capabilities of each child in this hospital-based setting?
  • To what extent is the curriculum based on hospital play specialists’:

–  professional knowledge, curriculum and subject knowledge, and knowledge of each child?

–  understanding of te ao Māori perspectives?

–  knowledge of the diverse cultural identities of families and whānau?

–  understanding of the impact of hospitalisation and treatment on children, their parents and family/ whānau?

Examples of prompts for investigation

  • How do HPS get to know children, their parents and family/whānau?
  • What informs curriculum decisions in this service? How are emphases and priorities for the curriculum determined?
  • What processes are in place to involve children, parents and families/whānau in planning and reviewing the curriculum?
  • What processes are in place to plan, assess and evaluate a curriculum that responds to the strengths, interests and capabilities of each child in a hospital-based setting?

Indicators for Mātauranga

ELEMENTS

EXAMPLES OF INDICATORS

Connecting elements

Mātauranga and partnerships with parents and whānau

Hospital play specialists, through contact with parents, families and whānau, promote strong, responsive, reciprocal and respectful partnerships to support each child’s wellbeing and learning.

Hospital play specialists:

–  understand te ao Māori perspectives to help them relate with Māori  whānau

–  value and acknowledge parents’ and families/whānau aspirations for their child, take account of these in assessment and planning processes and share this information with parents

–  can demonstrate how they provide opportunities for parents and families/ whānau to contribute to the curriculum and enhance connections for children

–  work in partnership with parents/whānau of children with special needs to enhance their learning and wellbeing

–  work with interdisciplinary teams to enrich children’s experiences in the hospital-based setting.

Mātauranga and sustainability through internal evaluation

Hospital play specialists use internal evaluation to inquire into the effectiveness of curriculum practices.

Hospital play specialists:

–  Use Te Whāriki at as basis for evaluating the service’s curriculum

–  evaluate the impact of curriculum decisions on children in the hospital-based setting

–  use their professional knowledge to review how their expertise is reflected in the service’s curriculum

Contributing elements

Professional knowledge

The principles and strands of Te Whāriki underpin the curriculum provided in the hospital-based service

Hospital play specialists:

–  understand the special nature and complexities of a hospital-based context, and respond sensitively and respectfully to how this impacts on children and families.

–  know about current theories of learning, teaching and development and use this knowledge to design a responsive curriculum

–  learn about Māori theories and philosophies to assist in the development of a culturally appropriate curriculum

–  learn te reo Māori, use correct pronunciation and integrate te reo meaningfully into the programme

–  recognise, value and advocate for the importance of children learning through play

–  are able to explain and discuss their pedagogy and share the rationale for curriculum decisions with parents and families/whanau

–  learn about the diverse language/s, culture/s and identity of each child attending.

Curriculum and subject content knowledge

Hospital play specialists can explain how the curriculum provided aligns to the principles and strands of Te Whāriki.

Hospital play specialists have:

–  an understanding of te ao Māori perspectives across all aspects of the curriculum

–  sufficient knowledge, including subject and general knowledge, to build on children’s existing understandings, working theories and dispositions

–  a depth of subject knowledge that enables them to respond meaningfully to children’s interests.

  • Where HPS do not have the necessary knowledge to support children’s interests they access information with children, parents and families/whānau.

Knowledge of learning and of children as learners

Hospital play specialists have information that shows how they appreciate the experiences each child brings with them to the hospital based-setting. These experiences are acknowledged and provide a basis for decisions about the curriculum, particularly for those children who experience multiple admissions and/ or transitions.

Hospital play specialists:

–  understand the child in the context of family/whānau and wider community

–  have an understanding of each child as a unique learner and the valued outcomes identified by their family/whānau

–  carefully listen to, recognise, respond to and encourage each child’s development through dialogue and providing meaningful experiences.

Knowledge of children’s rights

Within the curriculum, hospital play specialists have information that demonstrates how they provide opportunities for children to discuss and negotiate rights, informed consent, fairness and justice with adults.

  • The curriculum empowers children with the knowledge that they have the power to affect conditions that impact on them.
  • Assessment practices support children to understand and contribute to decisions about their learning and what happens to them in hospital.

Knowledge of culture and context

Hospital play specialists acknowledge whakapapa as integral to the development of a sense of self, belonging and connectedness.

  • Information about local hapu and iwi, their history, sites of significance and kawa is incorporated into the programme in a meaningful and respectful manner.
  • Kaupapa Māori concepts such as manaakitanga, wairuatanga, whanaungatanga and kaitiakitanga are integral to curriculum decisions.
  • The diversity within children of Pacific heritage (ie. they are not a homogenous group) is recognised and HPS understand that language and culture are key to Pacific children’s identity and a positive, confident sense of self.
  • HPS seek ways to maintain each child’s connection to their language, culture and identity.

Knowledge of family and community

Hospital play specialists:

–  recognise that Māori have a unique culture and history based on strong genealogical links and relationships.

–  engage with children and their parents’ language and culture to make the setting more meaningful for children and their families/whānau.

Assessment and identity

Assessment for learning practices are underpinned by current theory and research and actively involve children, parents and families/whānau. Hospital play specialists are knowledgeable practitioners who understand children’s learning.

  • Assessment values children’s languages, cultures and identities and acknowledges their social and cultural world, diverse experiences and places/ways of learning.
  • HPS learn about Māori theories and philosophies to assist in the development of culturally appropriate assessment practices.
  • Assessment acknowledges the meaning children are making of their healthcare and hospital experiences.

Assessment processes

Hospital play specialists keep records/evidence that demonstrate how they are intentional in the way they recognise and respond to opportunities to meaningfully engage children and contribute to their learning.

Hospital play specialists use assessment practices that:

–  reflect the learning and experiences in the hospital-based setting

–  focus on enhancing dispositional learning, as well as skills and ways of knowing

–  reflect the complexity and continuity of children’s learning and relationships with people, places and things, particularly for those children who experience multiple admissions and/or transitions

–  reflect a credit-based approach that pays attention to children’s strengths, interests and dispositions in a hospital-based context.

  • Ongoing observation of children builds a picture of what children know, understand, feel, are interested in, and can do.
  • Assessment includes multiple perspectives that enhance the interpretation and analysis of children’s learning and wellbeing.

Assessment purpose

Hospital play specialists use a range of approaches for different assessment purposes. These include:

–  understanding and supporting children’s engagement and learning

–  identifying and understanding children’s capabilities and where they may need additional support.

  • Assessment supports children’s learning and experiences.
  • Assessment practices provide parents and families/whānau with a way of contributing to each child’s learning and supporting their  wellbeing.

Curriculum planning

Hospital play specialists analyse assessment information to understand children’s learning pathways and plan to promote each child’s learning and wellbeing.

  • A range of information, including from interdisciplinary healthcare teams, is used to provide a comprehensive view about each child.
  • Planning that contributes to learning and promotes the wellbeing of each child is evident.

Evaluation Framework for Tikanga Whakaako

How well do teaching and training practices contribute to children’s learning and promote their wellbeing?

Priority questions

What does the service know (through its internal evaluation) about the effectiveness of tikanga whakaako in:

  • supporting the language/s, culture/s and identity of each child?
  • responding to the interests, strengths and capabilities of each child who attends the service?

To what extent do teaching and learning practices promote partnerships with parents and families/whānau? How effective is internal evaluation in improving teaching and learning practices?

Supporting evaluation questions

How effectively do hospital play specialists:

  • use teaching practices that enhance each child’s sense of self as a successful learner?
  • engage in respectful, reciprocal and responsive relationships with each child, their parents and family/ whānau?
  • respond to the strengths, interests and capabilities of each child?
  • implement practices that reflect the principles of Te Whāriki?
  • interact with each child to extend and challenge their thinking?
  • use teaching strategies and resources that reflect Aotearoa New Zealand’s dual cultural  heritage?
  • engage in reflective practice that leads them to question and modify their  practice?

How well are transitions managed for children when they are settling into the service, particularly for those children who experience multiple admissions and/or transitions? For example, transitions into, within and between home, hospital/s, wards, the hospital-based service, other early childhood services and the wider community.

Examples of prompts for investigation

  • What do HPS know about the effectiveness of their teaching practice and strategies in contributing to learning and promoting the wellbeing of each child?
  • In what ways do teaching and learning practices:

–  engage or extend each child’s knowledge, skills and dispositions?

–  recognise and respond to each child’s dispositions to learn, their strengths, interests and  capabilities?

–  promote the diverse languages, cultures and identities of children and their families/whānau?

–  support each child as they transition into, or between home, hospital, the hospital-based service, other early childhood services or the community?

Indicators for Tikanga Whakaako 

ELEMENTS

EXAMPLES OF INDICATORS

Connecting elements

 

Tikanga Whakaako and partnerships with parents and whānau

The service is welcoming to each child, their parents and family/whānau.

  • Hospital play specialists:

–  base partnerships on genuine attitudes of acceptance, respect and are willing to listen and respond

–  incorporate the cultural skills and expertise that families/whānau bring to the service

–  ensure that interactions with diverse families are culturally  responsive

–  enable parents and families/whānau to have a sense of ownership, be involved in educational and health care decisions and ensure that any intervention is culturally responsive.

Tikanga Whakaako and sustainability through internal evaluation

Hospital play specialists:

–  systematically evaluate the quality of their own practice and the impact of this on children, parents and families/whānau

–  engage in discussion and debate that challenges and informs improvement of their practice.

  • Internal evaluation:

–  includes a focus on the impact of the service’s curriculum for Māori children

–  leads to improved practices that are ‘enabling’ and based on principles of advocacy, diversity, equity and social justice.

Contributing elements

Relationships and interactions with children

Hospital play specialists:

–  develop positive, sensitive, responsive and reciprocal relationships with children

–  foster children’s language development and their understandings of medical language used with them

–  take time to listen to children and provide for authentic dialogue in meaningful contexts

–  actively promote peer interactions to support children’s learning and  wellbeing

–  ask open questions of children to allow their interests to lead learning

–  use te reo Māori in ways that recognise it as a living language, indigenous to Aotearoa New Zealand

–  acknowledge children’s culture/s, language/s, identity and life  experiences

–  encourage, accept and respect children’s voice.

Children’s rights

Hospital play specialists advocate for the rights of children and families/whānau to contribute to decisions that affect their wellbeing.

  • HPS talk with children about decisions that affect them and respect children’s rights to express a point of view, be involved in decisions that affect them and be empowered to take increased responsibility for their own wellbeing.

Effective teaching practice

Hospital play specialists intentionally:

–  use a range of strategies to encourage children to express and explore their working theories, including their response to hospitalisation and medical treatment

–  use a range of teaching strategies and practices to respond to the cultures, languages and identities of each child and their family/whānau

–  integrate the perspectives of tangata whenua and te ao Māori

–  support children’s problem-solving and experimentation

–  make links across time, place and activities by revisiting children’s experiences, ideas and interests

–  understand the concept of ako and support children to change roles between teacher and learner

–  consistently implement routines and give children a sense of security in being able to predict what will happen next

–  make learning meaningful, challenging, fun and enjoyable.

Intentional teaching includes:

–  co-construction between children, parents and families/whānau and HPS

–  joint involvement in child and adult-initiated activities

–  HPS involvement in children’s self-initiated play

–  sustained interactions that extend children’s thinking and value their contribution to the learning experience

–  providing children with feedback that acknowledges their effort and experiences.

Literacy and mathematics

Links to the school curriculum

Hospital play specialists are knowledgeable; they use current research to inform their thinking; they are familiar with and understand the links between Te Whāriki and The New Zealand Curriculum (NZC). They use this knowledge to provide meaningful experiences across the curriculum.

  • HPS provide a repertoire of literacy practices that enable children to:

–  observe, listen and build their understanding of specific medical language

–  use literacy for a purpose

–  critically question.

  • HPS provide good quality resources to:

–  support children’s home languages

–  engage children in meaningful play based experiences to develop print awareness and alphabet knowledge.

  • HPS enhance children’s learning through the provision of meaningful and interesting opportunities to:

–  engage in games in which children can vary the level of challenge

–  use open-ended resources to explore literacy and mathematics concepts in play

–  make sense of the natural, social, physical and material worlds

–  be creative and imaginative

–  use information communication technologies (ICT) in meaningful ways

Te Tiriti-based practice

Bicultural curriculum

Hospital play specialists can demonstrate how they:

–  are open to ‘listening to culture’, allowing space and time for whānau Māori to tell their stories, create their own images, and listen to their own voices

–  incorporate the principles of Te Tiriti o Waitangi (partnership, participation and protection)

–  include Māori concepts, knowledge, skills, attitudes, reo, practices, customs, values and beliefs into learning experiences

–  use te reo Māori

–  implement the principles of Ka Hikitia.27

  • HPS practice reflects the competencies in Tātaiako28

Inclusive practices

Hospital play specialists:

–  share a philosophy and commitment to inclusive education that includes beliefs and values based on social justice, fairness and human rights and the United Nations Rights of the Child (UNCRC).

–  identify and remove barriers to a child’s participation and learning, so far as possible

–  help all children and families to celebrate their differences by reinforcing the rights of individuals and groups to be different

–  provide children with positive ways of thinking about and understanding disability

–  enable children to explore gender and gender roles in ways that are non- stereotypical and open-ended.

Learning environment

Hospital play specialists ensure that resources and environments in the hospital- based setting:

–  offer a variety of experiences to encourage exploration that is meaningful, challenging and enjoyable for children

–  provide opportunities for children to make choices that are linked to their interests

–  support children to choose, experience challenges and revisit prior learning and experiences

–  include languages and symbols of children’s cultural backgrounds.

Transition into, within and between home, the service, home and community

Hospital play specialists, in partnership with parents and families/whānau implement transition practices that:

–  nurture children’s sense of wellbeing and belonging during and after transitions between the hospital, home, other early childhood services and the wider community

–  honour children’s linguistic and cultural uniqueness

–  foster children’s engagement to enhance their security and confidence at settling-in and transition times

–  maintain effective partnerships to support transition between home, hospital/s, the hospital-based service, other early childhood services and the wider community, particularly for children who experience multiple admissions and/or transitions.

     

Children up to two years of age

These indicators focus on factors that contribute to high quality provision for children up to two years of age. They are particularly focused on Tikanga Whakaako and Mātauranga.

ELEMENTS

EXAMPLES OF INDICATORS

Connecting elements

Positive, sensitive and responsive interactions

Hospital play specialists work collaboratively with parents and families/whānau to maintain infants’ and toddlers’ need for strong and secure attachments and respond sensitively to each child’s changing needs and preferences.

  • Secure, child-family-hospital play specialist relationships promote the development of children’s positive sense of self.
  • The social and emotional climate created by a responsive curriculum contributes to each child’s learning and supports their wellbeing.
  • Hospital play specialists:

–  engage in consistent, responsive interactions with children, their parents and families/whānau to establish a secure foundation for each  child

–  respect children’s and families/whānau rights to be informed and consulted about decisions that affect them

–  maintain a calm, slow pace in which younger children have space and time to lead their learning and recognise and use learning opportunities within care routines e.g. nappy changing

–  learn about te ao Māori to support their care of Māori infants and toddlers.

  • HPS engage with parents and families/whānau to:

–  know the narrative style (language development) of children and the level of communication and language used by each child

–  be responsive to children’s temperaments, preferences and interests, including the subtle cues offered by infants and toddlers including body language, for example, gaze, pointing

–  offer infants and toddlers appropriate choices about what is to happen to them and support them to manage, so far as possible, experiences that may be challenging

–  be available to infants and toddlers, supporting them in their learning and resisting the urge to intervene unnecessarily in their problem-solving efforts and mastery of their own physical development

–  be sensitive and responsive to differences in children’s social and cultural backgrounds.

  • The importance of play as a vehicle for learning is respected and valued.

Learning environment

The physical environment provides for the safety, physical and emotional wellbeing and intellectual stimulation of young children.

  • HPS advocate for environments, practices and treatment options that optimise a sense of wellbeing and belonging
  • HPS educate and support parents, and families/whānau to soothe and comfort infants and toddlers when they are exposed to stress that they cannot control
  • There is sufficient space to prevent overcrowding and to minimise children’s exposure to potential stress.

There are safe spaces for children who are not yet mobile, able to sit by themselves and for those who are crawling and learning to walk.

Structural aspects of quality for infants and toddlers

 

Responsibility for these aspects lies mainly with Pou Whakahaere and Pou Ārahi

The service provider has policies and procedures to promote infants’ and toddlers’ sense of wellbeing, including continuity of connection with people who are important to them.

  • Structures and systems ensure HPS are available and have the time to develop positive relationships with infants and toddlers and their parents and whānau
  • A positive working environment facilitates low turnover of HPS and is conducive to their relationships with infants and toddlers.
  • HPS have:

–  relevant qualifications, knowledge and skills to support infants’ and toddlers’ learning and wellbeing

–  professional knowledge that includes current research on high quality care and education practices for infants and toddlers.