Findings

The principles evident in the interpretation and implementation of schools’ curriculum

The New Zealand Curriculum requires schools and their communities to use the principles as a guide for shaping a curriculum that:

  • embodies beliefs about the nature of the educational experience and the entitlement of students
  • puts students at the centre of teaching and learning, engages and challenges them, is forward-looking and inclusive, and affirms New Zealand’s unique identity.

The New Zealand Curriculum gives schools the autonomy to develop a curriculum that suits the locally identified needs of students and communities and makes use of the resources that are available in those communities. Responsibility for deciding on the curriculum should be shared between teachers, trustees, parents, students and the community. The vision, values, principles and key competencies of The New Zealand Curriculum provide a framework for parties to engage in discussion about what kind of people they want students to be, and the best means to support students to develop their potential.

Evidence of all eight curriculum principles in the school curriculum

In 70 percent of schools, all eight curriculum principles were evident in some form in their curriculum review and development practices and policies. Most schools (82 percent) had either high or some evidence of practice that involved interpreting and implementing the principles of The New Zealand Curriculum. Seventeen percent of schools had minimal evidence of the principles, and one percent of schools could show no evidence of curriculum principles. These findings indicate that, in the three years since The New Zealand Curriculum was introduced, good progress has been made in understanding the curriculum principles and building them into school level curriculum review and development processes and practices.

Figure 1: Curriculum principles – level of evidence in schools

figure 1 is a bar graph called Curriculum principles – level of evidence in schools. The y-axis is called percentage of schools (n=109) it is ranged from 0-100 at intervals of 20. The x-axis is called Level of evidence of principles and has four labels which are High 32%, Some 50%, Minimal 17% and None 1%.

Typically, where the principles were highly evident:

  • teachers had high expectations for individual students regardless of their ethnicity, social background or ability
  • assessment for learning practices, such as students reflecting on learning and setting goals, were embedded in teacher practice
  • leaders and teachers promoted a culture of respect, caring, support and safety including providing a range of programmes to cater for students with diverse learning strengths and needs
  • parents and whānau were encouraged to contribute their perspectives about the future direction of the school.

Where the principles were minimally evident:

  • expectations for students were less specific and therefore less able to be planned for and monitored
  • parents and whānau were involved in school events, but were not necessarily consulted about the broad direction of the school and its curriculum
  • the curriculum was less coherent or aligned across subject areas
  • students had limited self-responsibility, choice and ownership of their learning.

Developing understanding of The New Zealand Curriculum and reviewing the curriculum

The following descriptions of curriculum review and development are largely drawn from the schools where the curriculum principles were highly evident in their planning documentation.

The New Zealand Curriculum was explored through school-wide and/or cluster-wide curriculum development managed by school leaders. In some schools, curriculum development began with school leaders constructing their own knowledge of The New Zealand Curriculum before they worked with the whole staff on curriculum review and development. Leaders attended meetings facilitated by the Ministry of Education, accessed support from other external providers or worked with other leader colleagues. In terms of ongoing support, the New Zealand Curriculum Onlineand Te Kete Ipurangi were deemed to be useful websites for materials and examples of the principles in action.

When teachers began to engage with The New Zealand Curriculum, they started by exploring the vision, values, principles, and key competencies at the front of the document. Investigation of the eight learning areas usually followed on from this. As the example below shows, there was a desire to treat the vision, principles, values, and key competencies as an integrated ‘package’ that created a coherent approach to curriculum development.

Eighteen months ago senior leaders and staff discussed curriculum principles alongside vision, values, principles and key competencies. They decided that curriculum development was to be meaningful for students and teachers. They wanted to consider all the front part of The New Zealand Curriculum together in a holistic way. They did not want the vision, values, principles, and Key Competencies to be seen in isolation as these together need to underpin the school’s curriculum, pedagogy and relationships. (Contributing school, Years 1-6)

In the past, schools had sought the views of their communities in developing their school charters. In the course of reviewing and developing their revised curricula, schools consulted them again, this time with a focus on the vision, values and principles that were important to them. School leaders noted that the curriculum principles linked well to school values and/or the culture of the school and could therefore be incorporated relatively easily into the schools’ curriculum framework.

The principles were considered as part of the designing process of The New Zealand Curriculum. They were linked to what we considered important from our original school values. (Full primary, Years 1-8)

…maintained were the values, already agreed and still seen as appropriate by the community, alongside The New Zealand Curriculum principles. (Contributing school, Years 1-6)

... enactment of the principles was not experienced as a big step or a major shift in the school’s approach to reviewing the curriculum. (Secondary school, Years 7-15)

Teachers’ knowledge about the principles was built over time and strengthened as they revisited them in the course of reviewing elements of the school-wide curriculum. In schools where this process was going well, the principles appeared in school documentation, filtered into classroom planning and were made known to students.

By contrast, in schools with less effective curriculum development processes, teachers were in the very early stages of looking at the vision, values, and key competencies; exploration and understanding of the curriculum principles was minimal; and school documentation did not mention the principles. There was much greater likelihood that the key competencies, or the vision and values were given greater priority than the curriculum principles.

When the New Zealand Curriculum professional development and implementation phase began in school in 2008, the principal spent part of the teacher-only day discussing the curriculum principles with the staff … Greater emphasis was placed on the vision and values, and what these implied in the revision of the school’s vision and values. Since 2008, curriculum principles have not been prioritised, whereas key competencies have. (Composite School, Years 1-15)

The relatively lesser focus on principles in curriculum development processes related to schools’ perceptions that:

  • their existing values served as a useful proxy for the principles and therefore no further work was required to develop the principles separately
  • the principles were taken for granted in the curriculum and required little further exploration or unpacking.

In addition to working towards achieving alignment between the school vision, values, curriculum principles and key competencies statements, schools also sought to understand the distinctive features of each curriculum principle and any links between them. Schools perceived that there were links between pairs of principles, such as between inclusion and cultural diversity, high expectations and learning to learn and, to a lesser extent, between community engagement and Treaty of Waitangi. In some cases, schools also confused the curriculum principles. For example, there was some confusion between cultural diversity and Treaty of Waitangi.

Where there was strong evidence of curriculum development in schools, the process of gaining clarity about The New Zealand Curriculum was invariably collaborative. Sometimes this understanding deepened through whole staff discussion. At other times it happened in syndicates or in specially-appointed curriculum teams.

Leaders supported implementation by initiating discussions with teachers about what vision, values, principles and key competencies might look like in practice in the classroom. Indicators were sometimes developed for each curriculum principle. As the following comments from schools illustrate, the indicators were designed to guide teachers’ work.

We defined what the principles would look like and sound like at our school. It was clearly expected that these principles would frame the curriculum and be woven into everything we did. Definitions for each principle included an overarching aspirational belief or objective which was supported by indicators for key aspects of school operation or expectations relevant to the principle. (Contributing school, Years 1-6)

Each faculty considered each principle and unpacked them in discussion with staff using indicators of what might be seen in the classroom and how they may link to effective pedagogy, values and key competencies. (Secondary school, Year 9-15)

In cross-curricular learning groups, staff brainstormed how each of the principles would influence teaching and learning in the school in the future ... They gave evidence of each principle and suggested ways in which the whole school community could become more aware of their importance. The groups suggested how each of the eight principles could make a difference for students who were currently not achieving to their full potential in the school. (Secondary school, Year 9-15)

A second area in which leaders made a contribution was through establishing school systems that promoted the consistent and/or sustainable implementation of The New Zealand Curriculum. They did this through developing department schemes, planning documents, school handbooks and prospectus. As this comment illustrates, leaders recognised that producing this required resourcing.

The principal and Senior Leadership Team have supported the heads of department to drive the implementation of The New Zealand Curriculum. Heads of department have developed an implementation plan that includes late-start Tuesdays where they have worked in teams to plan for documentation initially. Documentation seems to be focused on key competencies, values, learning areas and pedagogical dimensions. (Secondary school, Year 9-15)

The difference between schools that had high evidence of the principles in their curriculum, and those with lesser evidence, is that the former more actively supported this consistent and sustainable implementation through developing systems to support teachers.

These findings resonate with a previous ERO report, Readiness to Implement The New Zealand Curriculum (August 2009). This report noted that where schools were well positioned to implement The New Zealand Curriculum, the following features were present:

  • teachers and school leaders understood that curriculum design was cyclical and that there would be multiple future opportunities to trial formats and systems for planning, delivering and assessing their curriculum
  • teachers were well supported by leaders who played a critical role in maintaining the impetus on change, especially in the area of leading the learning on which curriculum development was founded
  • school leaders spent time gathering perspectives about the content of a local curriculum and explored the values and vision that were important to their communities.

Evidence of individual principles in the school curriculum

The curriculum principles were evident to some extent in all schools (see Table 2). ERO investigated which were most evident, least evident and not evident in the school curriculum. Usually one or more principle was identified under each category.

Table 2: Evidence of each principle in the curriculum of 109 schools

Ranking

Principles identified as most evident in the school curriculum

No. of Schools

1

High expectations

76

2

Community engagement

56

3

Inclusion

53

4

Learning to learn

50

5=

Treaty of Waitangi

43

5=

Coherence

43

6

Cultural diversity

37

7

Future focus

36

Ranking

Principles identified as least evident in the school curriculum

No. of Schools

1

Treaty of Waitangi

43

2=

Coherence

31

2=

Cultural diversity

31

3=

Learning to learn

29

3=

Future focus

29

4

Inclusion

17

5

Community engagement

13

6

High expectations

11

Ranking

Principles identified as not evident in the school curriculum

No. of Schools

1

Future focus

8

2=

Cultural diversity

7

2=

Treaty of Waitangi

7

3

Coherence

6

4=

High expectations

2

4=

Community engagement

2

5=

Inclusion

1

5=

Learning to learn

1

High expectations was an important principle for many schools. ERO found that teachers made clear links between the curriculum principles of high expectations, learning to learn and inclusion. They thought that all students should:

  • participate in learning
  • have access to appropriate support for their special learning needs
  • take responsibility for aspects of their learning (including setting and reviewing personal achievement goals).

ERO noted that teachers’ focus was most often on how to meet the learning needs of students at risk rather than on extending more able students. Interestingly, schools also interpreted high expectations in terms of student behaviour. Specifically, they thought that students should behave appropriately and demonstrate effective self-management skills at school.

Typically, teachers, leaders and trustees perceived that promoting the notion of high expectations began with their own actions.

The school had a long-standing commitment to maintaining high expectations. This was evident in teachers’ interactions with students and the quality of the teaching practices used in the school. Longstanding and experienced staff supported and promoted a commitment to excellence in the school, including implementing goal-setting with students and sharing assessment data with them.(Full primary school, Years 1-8)

A key focus for the school’s PLD leaders (that includes the principal and teachers who were using high quality teaching practices) was to promote high expectations for teachers as practitioners. This was seen as the mechanism to foster success for all students. It included looking at diverse factors that impacted on achievement, such as attendance, teaching practices, collecting evidence through multiple voices and using data to co-construct strategies for improving results. (Secondary school, Years 9-15)

The board of trustees had identified a range of priorities to meet its strategic vision. These included: raising student achievement and promoting personal best across sporting, academic and cultural pursuits. (Secondary school, Years 9-15)

When schools focused on the principle of inclusion, they emphasise the notion of students’ involvement in the curriculum, specifically that classroom teachers made students of all ethnicities and abilities feel welcome, and encouraged their participation in the programme.

The teacher organised her programme to ensure that students were fully able to access appropriate learning activities by establishing many ability groups in mathematics and reading. There was support available from the principal and a part-time teacher for students with specific learning needs. Gifted and talented students were identified and the teacher sought opportunities to extend these students particularly through information and communications technologies (ICT) tasks. (Full primary school, Years 1-8)

Thoughtful consideration was given to including students with high needs such as buddying them with other students or adapting the programme so they experienced success. A big deal was made when they moved levels with the emphasis being on improvement and progress rather than on attainment of a particular level. (Full primary school, Years 1-8)

ERO found evidence that teachers deliberately responded to students’ learning needs through the curriculum. Class descriptions were frequently cited as the initial process to identify which children required additional support. This was then followed up through teachers’ planning, the implementation of differentiated programmes, and giving additional support to students with learning needs.

Another of the principles, community engagement, happened in three ways. Schools consulted their communities about the charter and the revised curriculum. They also gave parents assessment information about their children and involved them in school programmes or events such as parent-helping or sports coaching. In all but a few cases there was little evidence that community expertise was being used to support students’ learning. Community engagement processes tended to happen at a school level rather than in classroom programmes.

Learning to learn was the fourth most evident principle. This suggests that while teachers had high expectations for students’ learning, their programmes did not necessarily teach students ways to be self-managing learners. Given the high priority that thinking and managing self have in the key competencies of The New Zealand Curriculum, it is a concern that this principle is not more apparent in the curriculum. ERO noted the following practices in schools applying this principle well. Students:

  • developed, with their teachers, learning intentions and success criteria for lessons/units of work
  • generated foci/questions that set the direction for learning
  • learned about the process for inquiring into topics of interest
  • reflected on their own performance, achievement or progress
  • set appropriate learning goals or next learning steps.

Coherence is one of three curriculum principles that was least evident in schools. This principle includes the notions of a broad education, links within and across learning areas, and transitions and pathways to future learning. Not all of these aspects were addressed by schools in their curriculum review or planning. Challenges to achieving coherence related to aligning the curriculum between departments in secondary schools or between classes in primary schools. Schools seldom mentioned transitions and pathways to future learning as a factor in their planning of the curriculum, although secondary schools were more likely to do this than primary schools.

The notion of integrated learning appears to be the aspect most understood and taken up by teachers and school leaders when reviewing and planning their curriculum. They did this through:

  • developing planning that linked several learning areas
  • planning for and/or making explicit to students, the links between new learning and previous topics or understandings.

In a few cases, schools made links between the principles and professional development they were engaged in, as shown in the following example:

Whole-school, externally-facilitated PLD initiatives supported the school in implementing and embedding curriculum improvement. As well as the Secondary Literacy Programme and the Secondary Numeracy Programme, the school was involved in Te Kotahitanga to improve teaching practice and student engagement. Te Kotahitanga embraced many of The New Zealand Curriculum principles and is therefore linked to teachers’ practices. (Secondary school, Years 9-15)

Treaty of Waitangi and cultural diversity were the other two least evident principles. Where the Treaty of Waitangi principle was least evident, Te Ao Māori (a Māori perspective or world view) was not visible in the school’s curriculum. There were minimal opportunities for students to learn te reo me ōna tikanga Māori, and the environment did not adequately celebrate aspects of Maori culture. Ways schools could improve their practice included:

  • understanding the Treaty of Waitangi and its implications for school policy, organisation and planning
  • consulting the Māori community/communities about the direction of the school and their aspirations for Māori students.

Where the Treaty of Waitangi principle was evident in the curriculum, the following features were noted in school programmes:

  • te reo me ōna tikanga Māori was valued and promoted at many levels of the school (trustees, teachers, students) through pōwhiri, karakia and kapa haka
  • students had opportunities to visit local marae
  • relationships were established with local iwi that supported students’ learning.

In a few schools, a Resource Teacher Māori (RTM) and/or Kaiawhina was available. These people provided specialist support to build teachers’ knowledge of te reo Māori, kapa haka and Māori protocols.

Some schools had done particularly well in increasing teachers’ capacity to understand a Māori perspective and thereby meet students’ needs as shown in the following example:

The school had a very capable board, three of whom were Māori. Senior managers and trustees have enrolled in a New Zealand Qualifications Authority paper to increase their awareness of Te Ao Māori and tikanga. They identified a group of Māori students who needed to develop a stronger sense of themselves as Māori. A school‑wide programme was in place. (Full primary school, Years 1-8)

Others had sought to work closely with Māori communities to support students’ academic development. As this example indicates, the impact was beneficial:

Many strategies were in place for supporting Māori students in their enjoyment of school and learning. These were coordinated by a large team of school and community personnel, brought together through a memorandum of understanding with [named trust]. Students had access to a variety of resources, role models, mentors and support systems. Expectations, aspirations and retention rates for Māori were lifting. Students experienced successes in academic achievement, sports, music, and performance and were moving on to higher learning. (Secondary school, Years 7-15)

Where there was evidence that schools were thinking about and incorporating the principle of cultural diversity into their curriculum, students had opportunities to celebrate some of their cultural practices and to share knowledge of these with other students. By contrast, where this principle was not highly evident, there was little acknowledgement of students’ cultural heritage in school programmes and in the physical environment. A more inclusive approach to curriculum management would make learning more relevant for students from diverse cultural backgrounds.

As a next step in developing deeper understanding of this principle, schools should provide professional development opportunities for staff that should focus on surfacing teacher’s own culturally-based beliefs and practices, and how these play out implicitly and explicitly in school and classroom systems and programmes. They should also make provision for students to express their diverse cultural perspectives and views.

ERO’s evaluation findings suggest that schools need to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the intent and nature of the principle of future focus. Four dimensions are incorporated in this principle - sustainability, citizenship, enterprise, and globalisation. Schools tended to focus their curriculum planning and programmes on one aspect – sustainability. They were involved in environmental projects, such as recycling, conservation and beautification programmes. Missing from most schools’ curricula was a planned and enacted approach to the aspects of citizenship, enterprise and globalisation. Absent was the crucial focus on supporting students to imagine a positive future through practising decision-making, learning about their rights and responsibilities in the classroom and the community, and discussing and acting on social justice issues.

Further, some schools interpreted this principle very narrowly as “preparing students to be 21st Century learners.” The scope of this principle was then limited to learning about how to use information and communications technology. Schools need to explore this principle in greater detail, so that its full intent and scope can be expressed in each school’s curriculum.

Treaty of Waitangi and cultural diversity are among the least evident principles in schools’ curricula. It would be useful for schools to gain a more comprehensive view of the implications of the Treaty of Waitangi for school policy and practice. It would also be useful for schools to develop their understanding about the nature of the Treaty of Waitangi and cultural diversity principles, including the distinction between the two principles. Examples of how each of the principles can be aligned with curriculum planning and incorporated into it, would also be beneficial to school leaders and teachers.

The principles of The New Zealand Curriculum enacted in classroom curriculum

Just as schools must be receptive to their communities and students in designing their revised curricula, classroom teachers, through classroom programmes, should respond to the emerging needs, interest and strengths of students. The eight principles, as well as the vision, values, and key competencies in The New Zealand Curriculum are a touchstone by which teachers can plan and review their programmes.

To enact the principles, teachers need to have a good knowledge of all eight principles and how each of them can be promoted through the classroom programme. When the principles are being enacted appropriately, they will be evident in teachers’ planning and in their programmes in action. The planned activities will take account of students’ learning needs, strengths and interests, as well as priorities that arise from consultation with the school’s community. For instance, the Treaty of Waitangi principle will be evident in regular planned opportunities for students to learn te reo Māori as well as through other formal and informal opportunities students have to understand and celebrate the place of Māori in Aotearoa New Zealand. The aspirations and views of students, their parents and communities will be apparent in school and classroom planning.

The extent of enactment in the classroom

ERO looked at the extent to which the principles were enacted in classrooms. Findings indicated that of the 200 classrooms, 83 percent showed high or some enactment of the principles in their curricula. In 17 percent of classrooms there was minimal or no enactment of the curriculum principles.

Figure 2: Curriculum principles - classroom enactment

figure 2 is a bar graph called Curriculum principles - classroom enactment. The y-axis is called percentage of schools (n=200) it is ranged from 0-100 at intervals of 20. The x-axis is called Level of enactment and has four labels which are Full 19%, Some 64%, Minimal 16% and None 1%.

There were differences between the ways the principles were used at school and classroom levels. At school level leaders developed curriculum frameworks and systems for teachers to enact the curriculum. In the classroom, the principles were evident in teachers’ actions and student learning.

Patterns in teachers’ practices were noted by ERO where the curriculum principles were fully and minimally enacted. Teachers integrated the principles into their long-term unit plans, and into their teaching actions. Typically, where the principles were fully enacted, teachers:

  • sought to know students well (for example through the analysis and interpretation of assessment information) so that they could tailor the teaching programme to suit them
  • aligned planning to assessment information
  • focused on lifting students’ achievement and accelerating their progress
  • sought to eliminate any barriers to the successful involvement of students in programmes
  • gave students information about their achievement and progress
  • encouraged students to set high personal and academic goals
  • gave students exemplars and rubrics to guide their future learning and self assessment
  • thought about ways to engage students in their learning
  • valued, promoted and celebrated the cultural heritage, strengths and abilities of students.

School leaders were more likely to be teaching in classes where the curriculum principles were fully enacted than in classes where there was some, minimal or no enactment. Given that in many schools, PLD for understanding the principles began with leaders, and had been sustained by them through school-based systems; this is not unexpected.

In classrooms where the principles were minimally enacted, some teachers had participated in professional learning activities to understand The New Zealand Curriculum. They generally understood the role the principles could potentially play in the process of curriculum review and development. Enactment in these classrooms, however, lacked the purposeful application noted in classrooms where enactment was high. In classrooms where enactment was minimal:

  • teachers did not have a clear understanding of the principles
  • the principles were not included in planning
  • there was a lack of focus on fostering students’ self-responsibility for learning.

Evidence of individual principles in the classroom curriculum

ERO investigated which principles were most evident, least evident and not evident in the classroom curriculum. Usually one or more principle was identified under each category. In 41 percent of classrooms, all eight curriculum principles were evident in some form. The extent to which each principle was evident in the curricula of the classrooms is represented in Table 3.

Table 3: Evidence of each principle in the curriculum of the 200 classrooms

Ranking

Principles most evident in classroom curriculum

No. of Classrooms

1

High expectations

147

2

Inclusion

115

3

Learning to learn

107

4

Coherence

75

5

Cultural diversity

65

6=

Community Engagement

55

6=

Future focus

55

7

Treaty of Waitangi

48

Ranking

Principles least evident in classroom curriculum

No. of Classrooms

1

Treaty of Waitangi

80

2

Future focus

58

3

Community engagement

53

4

Coherence

50

5

Learning to learn

47

6

Cultural diversity

44

7

Inclusion

24

8

High expectations

21

Ranking

Principles not evident in classroom curriculum

No. of Classrooms

1

Treaty of Waitangi

40

2

Future focus

33

3

Cultural diversity

 

4

Community engagement

29

5

Coherence

21

6

Inclusion

10

7

Learning to learn

7

8

High expectations

6

The three principles most evident in the classroom curriculum were high expectations, inclusion and learning to learn. These principles were demonstrated in classrooms through opportunities for students to:

  • reflect on their work and decide on their next learning steps or goals
  • make choices about topics to study, or pose questions for investigation
  • work with their teachers to develop success criteria for learning tasks or units of work
  • discuss their progress and achievement with teachers and their parents.

Students in these classrooms were viewed as competent and capable learners whose contribution to the programme was valued and encouraged.

The teacher operated from a facilitative approach. She continually searched for opportunities to challenge students’ thinking, for them to generate their own questions and find their own answers. She valued students as capable learners. (Contributing school, Years 1-6)

The teacher knew his students well, and developed their confidence through discussion, affirmation and collaborative peer activities. Students were involved in co-constructing success criteria and regularly discussed with the teacher their progress and next steps for learning. (Secondary school, Years 9-15)

Some teachers took this practice further by consulting students about the aspects of teaching that were most beneficial to their learning. They then adapted their programmes or teaching approaches, as shown in the following example:

The teacher had conferences with students about their next learning steps, was open and inclusive and highly reflective in her approach. For example, she conducted end-of-year surveys and had lots of one‑on-one conversations with students about how they were finding the work. Many units of work had self evaluations which students filled out, and these were filed in the student portfolios. The teacher had made comments on these, showing an awareness of how students experienced the teaching. (Composite school Years 1-15)

The inclusion principle was promoted through caring and supportive classroom cultures where teachers showed respect for students’ ideas, planned carefully so that learning was relevant, and used targeted resources and programmes for students with identified specific learning needs. High expectations and inclusion were also most evident in the school curriculum suggesting that understanding of these principles was strong.

Treaty of Waitangi, future focus and community engagement were the three principles most often not evident in the classroom curriculum. At the school level, Treaty of Waitangi was also the least evidence, along with future focus, which was also near the bottom of the school list. These findings indicate a relationship between school-wide systems and processes, and enactment in the classroom. The implications are that school leaders need to help teachers develop a more comprehensive understanding of Treaty of Waitangi, future focus and community engagement, in order to promote these principles more effectively in the classroom.

The links between school evidence and classroom enactment

The most evident school principles were also the principles most enacted in the classroom. The principles least evident in school curricula were also those least enacted at classroom level. Well-developed school systems corresponded with better understanding of the principles by teachers and more comprehensive enactment of them in the classroom.

While several principles were promoted well at a school level, and were being enacted at a classroom level, others were not given adequate priority at either of these levels. As part of curriculum review, it would be useful for school leaders to ascertain the extent to which all eight principles are understood and are evident in school policies and classroom practice and then address any gaps.