This overview of the processes and reasoning involved in effective internal evaluation for improvement draws on a recently published resource Effective Internal Evaluation – How to do and use internal evaluation for improvement (2015).1 This resource was jointly published by the Education Review Office and the Ministry of Education. Section Two of the resource – “Engaging in effective internal evaluation” describes both the ‘how to’ and the evaluative thinking that contributes to improvement. As these processes and associated reasoning can be used in many different evaluation contexts and settings we decided to publish this overview so more people could access and make use of this information. You might be a school board of trustees, the management committee of an early learning service, or a leader, teacher or member of a community of learning. This resource could also be used by community organisations interested in internal evaluation for improvement.