The schools in this sample that were using PB4L Restorative Practice or PB4L School-Wide had all tailored these initiatives to fit with their values and had successfully used them to change school culture and behaviour.
PB4L Restorative Practice is defined by three components that support the development of a culture in which responsibility and power are shared. Members of the school community learn strategies for interacting positively with each other, developing trust that allows them to be open and work through incidents when others do not meet their expectations.
Restorative Essentials are the everyday, informal interactions between adults and students in a school. Restorative Essentials emphasise relationships: respect, empathy, social responsibility and self-regulation, focusing on ‘keeping the small things small’.
Restorative Circles are a semi-formal practice requiring some preparation. Restorative Circles support teachers and their students to build and manage relationships and create opportunities for effective teaching and learning.
Restorative Conferencing describes a range of formal tools to help schools respond to misconduct and harm. These tools include Mini Conferences, Classroom Conferences and formal Restorative Conferences. Conferencing is most often facilitated by a school’s management and pastoral staff, and sometimes initiated by students themselves.
PB4L School-Wide is a framework that schools can use to develop a social culture that supports learning and positive behaviour. Based on international evidence, it looks at behaviour and learning from both a whole-of-school and an individual perspective.
PB4L School-Wide asserts that opportunities to learn and achieve increase when:
the school environment is positive and supportive
PB4L School-Wide takes 3–5 years to establish. Over this time, schools should see:
When deciding which schools should be a part of PB4L School-Wide, the Ministry gives priority to secondary schools, low-decile schools with high numbers of Māori and Pacific students.
Te Kotahitanga and He Kākano are programmes for teachers and school leaders. They include aspects of coaching and mentoring. These programmes increase school-wide capability regarding culturally responsive curriculum and enhance the leadership of change. Although funding for the programmes has ceased website materials are still valuable and used by schools.
The Effective Teaching Profile (ETP) was developed as an integral part of Te Kotahitanga. It describes six essential elements of culturally responsive practice and curriculum:
Manaakitanga – teachers care for their students as culturally located human beings above all else.
Mana motuhake – teachers care for the performance of their students.
Ngā whakapiringatanga – teachers are able to create a secure, well-managed learning environment.
Wananga – teachers are able to engage in effective teaching interactions with Māori students as Māori.
Ako – teachers can use strategies that promote effective teaching interactions and relationships with their learners.
Kotahitanga – teachers promote, monitor and reflect on outcomes that in turn lead to improvements in educational achievement for Māori students.
Schools involved in the Te Kotahitanga professional development programme used the ETP with participating teachers. This programme comprised an induction hui followed by cycles of formal observations, feedback, group co-construction meetings, and targeted shadow-coaching.
Many schools use the ETP in conjunction with their appraisal processes.
The Ministry funds boards of trustees to employ Resource Teachers: Learning and Behaviour (RTLBs). RTLBs support schools, kura and Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako by providing learning and behavioural support. Provision is tailored to the needs of students and their teachers, and to the particular school context.
The Ministry encourages schools to become familiar with the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) framework. This framework assists schools to design learning environments and curricula that recognise and respond to the needs of all their learners. The framework underpins the Ministry’s Everyone’s In teacher planning tool and is used by the Ministry in inclusive education workshops.