Glossary C





Related terms


Speak to 3 others to sort out ideas and build understanding before seeing the teacher for help.



A physical space where groups are called together to share and discuss information, often informally.



A space for individual study, reflection, quiet reading and creative flow.



Laptops that use the Chrome Operating System (OS). These work with Google applications E.g. Google docs. Material is stored in and accessed from the Cloud. Typically chromebooks are smaller laptops than the ones that store material in their own memory.

Applications, Operating System (OS), Google, Cloud,

Cloud computing

A virtual storage space that allows data to be accessed from anywhere, rather than being tied to a particular device. Also, commonly known as "the cloud."

Data, Virtual, Device


A collaborative approach to assessment where the assessor and assesses work together to mark a piece of work. This can be done by the teacher, peer(s) or even parents.




Co-construction of the curriculum refers to a partnership between teachers, students and, on occasions, parents to develop a curriculum that really engages and extends the students in their class or group. It would still meet the requirements of the NZ Curriculum, but uses authentic contexts for the students.

Authentic contexts

Co-constructed learning

This occurs when children and/or teachers construct meaning and knowledge about the world together. Co-construction of learning deepens relationships and understanding between all learning partners.



A model that emphasises collaboration and communication among all members of a team of teachers where they take collective responsibility for their group of learners. Typically the team would explore data about student achievement and learning behaviours, and plan the best response to meet the needs of all students. The response would typically involve different activities for different students.



A one-to-one conversation focused on improving performance through questioning, active listening and appropriate challenge in a supportive and encouraging climate. Coaching is about focusing on a desired performance outcome E.g. Coaching a student to confidently deliver a speech.



The set of instructions that make a computer program run and makes it possible for us to create computer software and application websites. Your browser, your operating system, the applications on your phone and Facebook are all made with codes.

Coding, Application, Website, Browser, Operating system, Facebook


Writing the instructions that make a program work. Learning to code enables pupils to learn the step-by-step commands to make websites, games and apps. At the moment coding is optional in NZ schools.

Applications, Code, Operating system, Software, Website

Cognitive science

The study of the mind and how it works.

Modern cognitive science confirms that the quality of knowledge and understanding is of utmost importance in developing a strong learner rather than just how much knowledge is acquired.


Cognitive wobble

When you realise you are holding two opposing views and struggle to make sense of that in a deep and challenging way.



When individuals work together as a team on a problem, project or goal in an organised way, where they learn from and facilitate the learning of others. It is more than just cooperating. Collaborative learning can occur between just two students or within a larger group, and take a variety of forms.


Collaborative Inquiry

Learners work closely together to enhance their understanding of the world around them. They develop a question, gather and analyse evidence, determine next steps and share their findings and recommendations.



A process that follows a clear series of steps to arrive at a result (a calculation). It also refers to the operation of a computer, or a system to work something out. Sometimes used to refer to Computer Science as a subject.

Computational thinking


Computational thinking

Involves a range of skills, based on the nature of computation, that are used to better understand and solve problems. It includes some important skills that are developed across the curriculum, like creativity, ability to explain and team work. It also consists of some very specific problem solving skills such as the ability to think logically. It further includes understanding how people behave in different situations.



Concept Mapping

Concept maps are tools for organising and representing knowledge. They may be any sort of diagram that shows the relationships between concepts or ideas. Often the relationships might be shown as circles interconnecting or linked by connecting lines and linking words.



Referring to classes - running at the same time.


Connected learning

In NZ, this refers to learning made possible as a result of integrating technology with learning, to get the best results for the school's students and community. The connections made can be both local and global. In some cases, connected learning refers to modern learning where the contexts for learning focus on social equity.

Dispositions, Inquiry, Collaboration



Is about how connected people are to others outside of the classroom. Connectedness increases dramatically with good use of digital technology.



Constructivism explains how people might acquire knowledge and learning. The theory suggests that people make sense of the world around them and accumulate knowledge, building on their own experiences. This acquisition of knowledge may not always be accurate.


Cooperative learning

A way of learning in which students work together to help each other, while the teacher acts as a guide or facilitator. Generally the level of organisation in cooperative learning is not so structured as in collaboration. This method also reinforces a student's own learning as well as the learning of their fellow group members, together with developing social skills.


Creative commons

An organisation that has set up an alternative to copyright. It fills the gap between full copyright in which no use of material is allowed without permission, and public domain where no permission is needed. Usually, a Creative Commons license allows people to use the work and share it legally as long as it is not for commercial gain.


Critical thinking

The ability to think clearly and rationally about what to do or what to believe. It includes the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking. Someone with critical thinking skills is able to understand the logical connections between ideas and determine how reliable a source of information is.


Crowd Sourcing

The process of getting funding for work, usually online, from a crowd of people.


Cultural Capital

Refers to the ideas and knowledge that people draw upon as they participate in social life. Everything from rules of etiquette to being able to speak and write effectively can be considered cultural capital. Cultural capital is not linked to income, net worth, or any financial measure. Teachers respect and draw on student cultural capital to encourage engagement in learning.



The ability to act in a safe and responsible manner on the internet and in other connected environments. For schools, cybersafety is about maintaining a positive approach to the many benefits brought by technologies and teaching students to identify and manage the risks associated with ICT.

Connected, Internet, ICT