ERO recommends the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health work together with expert partners to:

» provide greater support for implementation of the 2015 Sexuality Education guidelines, including:

>   working with schools to understand teachers' professional learning and development needs and explore opportunities to provide training in sexuality education

>   developing a co-ordinated cross-agency expectation around whole-school approaches to sexual harassment, including online

» promote sustainability by prioritising funding and support for external providers of sexuality education that include a focus on building teachers' and other school staff capability

» support the development of sexuality education resources and programmes that address the needs of diverse populations currently under­served by existing provision, especially:

>   Māori students and whānau

>   Pacific students and communities

>   students with additional learning needs

>   sex-, gender-, and sexuality-diverse students

» over time, evaluate the use and usefulness of the recent guide to supporting LGBTIQA students

» further investigate the impact of pornography on young people in New Zealand

ERO recommends that schools:

» use this report, along with the Sexuality

Education guidelines to review their sexuality education programme

» implement a comprehensive sexuality

education programme, making sure sufficient time is provided for delivery and that students at all levels have opportunities to engage with sexuality education

» develop robust whole-school expectations around how to deal with sexual harassment and bullying, including modelling respectful language

» proactively consider how to promote an inclusive and welcoming environment for sex-, gender- and sexuality-diverse students, including reviewing uniform and bathroom options

» make sure they use the mandated consultation process[4] effectively to gather meaningful student and whānau voice to inform the development of their sexuality education programme

» make sure teachers have sufficient professional capability to effectively teach sexuality education, and access professional learning and development as needed

» consider how their sexuality education programme is relevant and responsive for students who have generally been underserved, including:

>   Māori students

>   Pacific students

>   migrant students

>   students with additional learning needs

>   sex-, gender- and sexuality-diverse students

» evaluate the use of external programmes and resources in sexuality education, prioritising those programmes and resources that include an explicit focus on improving staff capability

» empower student-led support and advocacy groups.

[4]   Section 60B of the Education Act 1989 requires school boards to consult with the school community at least once every two years on how they plan to implement the health education component of the curriculum, and to adopt a statement on the delivery of the health curriculum following this consultation.