Appendix 2: Conceptual framework drawn from the research, curricula and English Language Learning Progressions

Aspect Research Findings  Curricula English Language Learning Progressions (ELLPs)
  • Teachers have a clear sense of their own ethnic and cultural identities
  • Community members and parents or guardians are encouraged to become involved in learner’s education and given a significant voice in making important school decisions related to programmes (such as resources and staffing)
  • Teachers explicitly teach learners the school’s culture and seek to maintain learner’s sense of cultural pride and identity
  • Teachers have developed a bond with their learners and cease seeing them as ‘the other’
  • Leaders and teachers provide a safe learning environment so learners and their whānau can develop a sense of belonging. They will feel welcomed and settled as precursors to learning the English language
  • The curriculum is non‑sexist, non‑racist, and non‑discriminatory
  • Teachers are personally committed to achieving equity for all learners and believe they are capable of making a difference
  • Teachers are aware and involved in dialogues outside the classroom aimed at achieving a more just and humane society
  • Leaders have a clear vision, develop appropriate goals, and secure resourcing to support the achievement of their vision
  • Learners can make smooth transitions within and across educational institutions and there are clear pathways for future learning
Know the learner
  • Learners’ identities, languages, abilities, and talents are recognised
  • Multiple sources of information include parents and whānau, portfolios, learning stories, formal and informal assessments, and other agencies who may be supporting the learner and their whānau
  • Know your learners ‑ their language background, their language proficiency, their experiential background

Questions: What do you know about your learner’s language skills? What do you know about their prior knowledge? How will you find out this information? How will it affect your planning?

  • Schools provide an academically challenging curriculum that includes attention to developing higher‑level cognitive skills
Plan for individual learning priorities
  • Teachers have high expectations for all learners to succeed
  • Learners’ identities, languages, abilities, and talents are affirmed and teachers plan how to address identified learning priorities using appropriate assessment tools
  • The curriculum reflects New Zealand’s cultural diversity and values the histories and traditions of all its people
  • The curriculum acknowledges the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi, and the bicultural foundations of Aotearoa New Zealand; all learners have the opportunity to acquire knowledge of te reo Māori me ōna tikanga
  • Identify the learning outcomes including the language demands of the teaching and learning

Questions: What language do the learners need to complete the task? Do the learners know what the content and language learning outcomes are?

  • Maintain and make explicit the same learning outcomes for all the learners

Questions: How can I make the lesson comprehensible to all learners? How can I plan the learning tasks so that all the learners are actively involved? Do my learners understand the learning outcomes?

  • Begin with context‑embedded tasks that make the abstract concrete

  • Teachers communicate high expectations for success of all learners and a belief that all learners can succeed
  • Curricula include the contributions and perspectives of the different ethno cultural groups that compose the society
Demonstrate best practice
  • Teachers use suitable strategies and relevant contexts to engage learners and to extend their learning. They make good use of resources, including digital technologies to enhance learning, and reflect on their teaching practice
  • The curriculum supports and empowers all learners to learn and achieve personal excellence, regardless of their individual circumstances
  • Provide multiple opportunities for authentic language use with a focus on learners using academic language

Questions: Is the language focus on key language? Do I make sure the learners have many opportunities to notice and use new language?

  • Ensure a balance between receptive and productive language

Questions: Are the learners using both productive (speaking, writing) and receptive (listening, reading) language in this lesson?

  • Include opportunities for monitoring and self‑evaluation

Questions: Am I using ‘think aloud’ to show learners my strategy use? What opportunities are there for reflection and self‑evaluation?

  • Teachers help learners see learning tasks as meaningful
  • Teachers provide scaffolding that links the academically challenging curriculum to the cultural resources learners bring to their learning
  • Instruction focuses on learners creating meaning about content in an interactive and collaborative learning environment