Appendix Two: Glossary

Ability grouping

Students are placed in groups based on their ability in the relevant learning area. This grouping may be with students from their own class or from a number of classes.


Curriculum activities that match the readiness and needs of the gifted student. In practice, students are exposed to new content at an earlier age than other children, or cover the same content in less time. See Chapter 11 of Gifted and Talented: New Zealand Perspectives edited by McAlpine D. and Moltzen R..

Cluster group programmes

Some schools have formed geographical clusters to provide programmes for gifted and talented students from a number of schools. Often these clusters have applied for, and received, Ministry of Education funding, for example the Talent Development Initiatives Funding Pool, which is part of the New Zealand Government’s gifted education policy.

Cooperative learning

A cooperative learning programme includes the following components:

Positive interdependence - students work in groups with assigned roles to achieve common goals;

Individual accountability - students are equally responsible for the group's success and can therefore be held accountable;

Group processing - students reflect on how well their group functioned in working towards the group's learning goals;

Social skills are incorporated in ways that students can identify their use and purpose.

Cooperative learning involves a deliberate intention of transforming individuals into committed and productive members of a cohesive team.

Differentiated teaching and learning

Differentiated teaching and learning involves creating multiple paths so that students of different abilities, interest or learning needs experience equally appropriate ways to absorb, use, develop and present concepts as a part of the daily learning process. It allows students to take greater responsibility and ownership for their own learning, and provides opportunities for peer teaching and cooperative learning.

Enrichment and extension

Providing qualitatively differentiated learning experiences to broaden and deepen students’ conceptual understanding, according to their abilities and needs.


The Enviroschools Foundation is a charitable trust that provides support and strategic direction for a nation-wide environmental education programme. Implementation is on a regional basis, along regional council boundaries. The national team works with Enviroschools Regional Coordinators to support the creation of sustainable schools via:

The Facilitated Enviroschools Programme – where schools sign-up to a 3-year process of environmental learning and action; as an enviro-school they gain access to an extensive resource kit and a trained facilitator.

The Enviroschools Awards Scheme - an incentive scheme for schools to become actively involved in environmental education through achieving bronze, silver and green/gold levels with the assistance of an awards booklet.

See for more information.

Extending High Standards Across Schools

Extending High Standards Across Schools (EHSAS) is designed to raise student achievement by promoting excellence among New Zealand's schools. Funding is made available to successful schools to improve student outcomes by developing and extending their proven practice in collaboration with other schools in a self-selected cluster. The emphasis is on developing professional networks and improving the evidence-base around what works to improve student outcomes.

The principles behind EHSAS are to raise student achievement by promoting excellence in the school system and supporting high standards. EHSAS projects can run for up to four years and schools can only be involved in one EHSAS project at a time.

Future Problem Solving

Future Problem Solving is a year‑long programme where students, working in teams, learn and apply a six-step problem solving process that provides them with the tools to tackle problems that they will meet throughout their life. Throughout the year, students apply the process to consider the challenges and issues contained in complex social and scientific problems to be faced in the future or tackle existing problems in their own communities. The programme encourages students to carry out in-depth research, to think creatively and critically, to apply ethical thinking skills and to work as part of a team. See for more information.

Individual Education Plans

An Individual Education Plan is usually developed for students with special education needs. It outlines the student's goals and the time in which those goals should be achieved. The plan also describes the teaching strategies, resources, monitoring and support, and the evaluation required to enable the student to meet those goals. It is developed in a meeting between parents/caregivers, the child's teacher, the child (if they wish to attend) and specialists as appropriate. The aim is to identify current strengths, to set short and long term goals together for the child, and record their learning progress.

Visit the Ministry of Education website for more information

Inquiry learning

Inquiry-based learning is a constructivist approach, in which students have ownership of their learning. It starts with exploration and questioning and leads to investigation into a worthy question, issue, problem or idea. It involves asking questions, gathering and analysing information, generating solutions, making decisions, justifying conclusions and taking action. Inquiry-based learning approaches can help develop higher-order, information literacy and critical thinking skills. They can also develop problem-solving abilities and develop skills for lifelong learning.

Inter and intra personal skills (Emotional intelligence)

Non-cognitive skills of understanding and managing other people. Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences includes both interpersonal intelligence (capacity to understand the intentions, motivations, and desires of other people) and intrapersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one’s feelings, fears, and motivations).

Learning intentions

Making learning explicit to students by using language they understand to explain what they are learning.

Learning pathways

The New Zealand Curriculum (2007) provides guidelines for schools about providing learning pathways for students in their journey from early childhood education to tertiary education that prepares them for and connects well with the next stage. Schools’ curriculum design should make transitions positive and give students a clear sense of continuity and direction (p41).


Hospitality, kindness, generosity.


Gifted and talented students represent students with many different special abilities. Some may be gifted and talented in science or mathematics, others in visual arts or literacy, and others in leadership. Gifted and talented does not only include students with high intelligence.

Multiple intelligences

Howard Gardner’s eight multiple intelligences support a pluralistic view of intelligence, and include:


physical movement and knowledge of the use of the body


relationships and communication, understanding others


knowledge of own thinking and emotions


mathematical and scientific reasoning


sensitivity to rhythm, beats, tonal patterns; performance and composition


curiosity about natural world, ability to classify flora and fauna


concerned with words and language


comprehension of the visual world and creation of mental images

Visit more information.

Philosophy for Children

Philosophy for Children is a thinking skills programme in critical and creative thinking. Philosophy for Children improves critical, creative and rigorous thinking. Participants develop their higher order thinking skills and the attitudes and dispositions necessary for good thinking. They improve their communication skills and their abilities to work with others. See for more information.

Questioning skills (higher order questioning)

Skills to help students to develop better questioning by understanding the features of an effective question and the skills of an effective questioner. Rather than ask closed questions, students learn to ask relevant, open questions based on what, who, when, why, where, which, and how.

Streaming or banding

Students are placed in classes based on their abilities.

Success criteria

Making learning explicit to students by providing them with criteria to measure their success.

Technology challenges

The most well known of these is the BP Technology Challenge. The BP Challenge is an event between teams, challenging them to design and develop 'solutions' to problems using easily resourced materials e.g. paper, string, sticky tape. The BP Challenge helps students develop personal and team skills. The programme is sponsored by BP Oil NZ Ltd and administered by the Royal Society of New Zealand.

See for more information.

Te Manu Aute

Te Manu Aute, based in Northland, is a TDI organised by the University of Auckland and Team Solutions for students with gifts and talents in the arts. See

Thinking skills

Giving students the skills to be creative, critical and metacognitive thinkers so they can make sense of information, experiences, and ideas. These skills help them to develop understanding, solve problems, make decisions, shape actions, and construct knowledge. Examples of thinking skills programmes include: de Bono’s Thinking Hats, Thinking Maps, Bloom’s Taxonomy, Philosophy for Children (P4C), Future Problem Solving, and Thinker’s Keys.


Procedure, custom, protocol that reinforce Māori beliefs and values.


Tuakana/teina refers to the relationship between an older (tuakana) person and a younger (teina) person and is specific to teaching and learning in the Māori context. Within teaching and learning contexts, this can take a variety of forms:

  • Peer to peer – teina teaches teina, tuakana teaches tuakana.
  • Younger to older – the teina has some skills in an area that the tuakana does not and is able to teach the tuakana.
  • Older to younger – the tuakana has the knowledge and content to pass on to the teina.
  • Able to less able – the learner may not be as able in an area, and someone more skilled can teach what is required.



Students are regularly removed from their regular classroom for work with a specialist teacher, participation in a mini-course, seminar, educational field trip, or interactions with a special guest.