Appendix 2: Summary of findings


Highly effective (11 TPUs) have:

Mostly effective (8 TPUs) need to:

Partial effectiveness (3 TPUs) need to:

Stewardship and leadership


  • consistent and stable leadership
  • strong philosophy and values for providing parent education  
  • strong relational trust and partnerships
  • clear working arrangements – board, host school, ELS
  • holistic approach to learning
  • used the Ministry’s TPU guidelines and outcomes framework widely
  • identify links between the host school and TPU’s strategic priorities
  • strengthen reporting to host school and board
  • integrate the Ministry’s TPU guidelines and outcomes framework into daily operations
  • strengthen human resources management systems: robust appraisal systems, align PLD, clear roles and responsibilities
  • strengthen relationship with host schools
  • clarify resourcing arrangement between host school and unit, such as staff roles and finances
  • strengthen the use of Ministry’s TPU guidelines and outcomes framework

Positive student outcomes


  • students who learn as culturally‑located individuals  
  • many 2016 leavers achieve NCEA Level 3, national certificate courses and other courses, such as driver’s licence
  • students who made progressive shifts from unit standards to achievement standards
  • determined students who take ownership of their learning
  • focus on students’ wellbeing and health outcomes, as well as academic outcomes
  • evaluate incentives for students’ attendance
  • strengthen students’ ownership of their learning in some TPUs
  • manage attendance challenges to minimise negative impact on student outcomes
  • track and analyse student outcomes to inform future decisions

Student support, engagement and transitions

  • an inclusive and welcoming environment
  • identified settling student’s children in an early learning service as a priority  
  • well‑planned and focused inductions
  • personalised and high quality individual learning plans (ILPs)
  • regular discussions with social worker and career adviser
  • teacher mentors and group support
  • comprehensive career development and transition programmes
  • maintain positive relationships between staff, students and whānau
  • support students’ academic and personal achievements
  • strengthen student mentoring and group support
  • make greater use of digital technology to share information
  • support students wellbeing and inclusion in ILPs
  • strengthen whānau involvement
  •  analyse attendance issues in relation to incentives such as the Young Parents Payment 
  • improve data collection about students’ destinations


  • focused but flexible learning programmes with clear goals and expectations
  • deliberately integrated wellbeing in the curriculum and the students’ ILPs
  • identified the achievement of NCEA Level 1 and Level 2 as foundations for further study
  • teachers who can advocate on behalf of the students
  • integrated the students’ cultural backgrounds in the learning programme
  • strengthen careers education and development of future pathways 
  • improve the learning programme to accommodate students’ interests and aspirations in some TPUs
  • strengthen the development of relevant future pathways with the courses offered  
  • increase support for students and integration of their culture in their learning
  • focus on students’ wellbeing, health and social outcomes



  • experienced teachers with wide curriculum and pedagogical knowledge
  • designed systems to track and monitor achievements to support planning, goal setting, assessment and celebrating success
  • regular reflections with stakeholders about different approaches to support the students’ learning
  • committed host school leaders who support teachers’ PLD
  • track student achievement against TPU goals
  • align teachers’ PLD to areas of expertise or need in the TPUs
  • support professional supervision for teachers in charge
  • develop networks with other TPUs


  • strengthen professional capability to improve teaching strategies 
  • improve tracking of student achievement and celebrate milestones




  • prioritised partnerships with ELS
  • access to host school’s resources, programmes and PLD
  • well‑established learning partnerships
  • strong wrap‑around support for students and their children
  • learning programmes aligned to identified future pathways
  • strengthen communication and relationships between TPU, host school and the Ministry of Education
  • clarify the role of external providers and their area of focus
  • increase targeted support for students and their children
  • strengthen interaction with careers advisor and provision of career education
  • clarify agreement with the ELS in one TPU

Improvement focus

  • effective processes for internal evaluation; its role for change and improvement
  • students involved in inquiry processes to support their learning
  • develop evaluative capability to extend inquiry processes and make links to improvement
  • use data and student voice to support internal evaluation processes
  • align unit goals with student learning priorities