All schools in this sample use restorative practices, some tailoring them to align with their specific school values. Five of these seven schools use PB4L School-Wide and the other two have programmes already in place successfully targeting school culture and behaviour.
Positive Behaviour for Learning – School-Wide (PB4L School-Wide) is a framework that schools can use to develop a social culture that supports learning and positive behaviour. Based on international evidence, it looks at behaviour and learning from a whole-of-school as well as an individual child perspective.
PB4L School-Wide takes the approach that opportunities for learning and achievement increase if:
PB4L School-Wide takes 3-5 years to put in place. Over this time, schools should see:
Priority is given to secondary schools, low-decile schools with high numbers of Māori and Pacific Island students on their roll and schools that can be part of a School-Wide cluster.
Two of the schools in this sample are pilot schools for an integrated PB4L RP model.
Restorative Practice is defined by these three components:
Five of the seven schools are participants in Te Kotahitanga or He Kākano (the programme initiated in 2009 specifically for school leaders and including coaching and mentoring). These programmes increase school-wide capability regarding culturally responsive curriculum and enhance the leadership of change. Principals in these schools particularly appreciated the input of the programme facilitators and mentors and valued their expertise and input as external critical friends.
The Te Kotahitanga schools use aspects of the Effective Teacher Profile as part of their appraisal tools.
The Effective Teaching Profile consists of six elements:
Manaakitanga – teachers care for their students as culturally located human beings above all else.
Mana motuhake – teachers care for the performance of their students.
Ngā whakapiringatanga – teachers are able to create a secure, well-managed learning environment.
Wananga – teachers are able to engage in effective teaching interactions with Māori students as Māori.
Ako – teachers can use strategies that promote effective teaching interactions and relationships with their learners.
Kotahitanga – teachers promote, monitor and reflect on outcomes that in turn lead to improvements in educational achievement for Māori students.
The Effective Teaching Profile was implemented in the classroom of participating teachers in 2004 and 2005 by means of the Te Kotahitanga Professional Development Programme. This programme consists of an initial induction hui, which is followed by a term-by-term cycle of formal observations, follow-up feedback, group co-construction meetings, and targeted shadow-coaching. Other activities that support this programme, such as new knowledge, new teaching strategies and/or new assessment procedures are introduced on a ‘needs’ basis.