Appendix 1


a term which refers to teaching and learning, emphasising the reciprocal nature of both activities


the feeling that we are in control of our own actions.

Circle of Care

a model for coordinating multi-system support.

Confidential disclosures                     

sensitive information given by students that needs to be carefully handled and only shared as appropriate.

Evaluative questions                          

questions about the merit, worth or significance of something. To answer an evaluative question involves making a judgement of value.

Guiding principles                           

fundamental values which underpin and are woven through all of the wellbeing indicators.

External agencies                           

organisations external to the school, including social and health providers.

Health Promoting Schools           

a strategic framework developed by the Ministry of Health which supports school communities to identify and address their health needs by building on existing strengths and using an inquiry-based approach to build their own capabilities.


asking for help when it is needed to solve a problem. This could be from peers, teachers, counsellors, parents/whānau, professional health providers, etc.

Improvement and responsiveness

a full range of inquiry and improvement processes across the school that are systematically gathered from multiple sources, analysed, responded to and modified to improve student wellbeing.

Individual Education Plans                

a plan which sets goals for the learner and identifies how they will be  supported to meet those goals. It is developed by the team of people who support the learner, including parents, whānau, teachers, teacher aides, specialists and the learner themselves.

Intervention Triangle                          

a tool for identifying and responding to student needs. The broad base represents the prevention aspect suitable for all students. The middle represents more specific interventions for the smaller number of students with moderate needs. The top of the triangle represents intensive professional interventions for students who are most at risk.

Investigative prompts  

further and more specific questions which help to provide evidence which can be used to answer evaluative questions.


the spiritual force in a person, place or object, which can be considered as charisma.

Memorandum of Understanding

a document that describes principles and an agreement between two or more parties on any given topic.

Multi-disciplinary teams                     

a group of people with varied but complementary skills, knowledge and experience, working together for a common purpose.

Prosocial values                              

values like empathy and concern which support actions that benefit other people, such as helping, sharing, co-operating. The opposite of anti-social.

Protective factors                            

activities, situations or dispositions which help to promote wellbeing. For example: trusting relationships, or personal resilience.

Punitive approaches                           

approaches to discipline which focus on punishing students who have broken rules.

Restorative practices                     

an alternative approach to discipline which focuses on working together with students who have done wrong and those affected by the wrongdoing to put things right.

Risk factors                                       

activities or situations which have a potentially negative effect on wellbeing. For example: exposure to violence, or alcohol/drug abuse.

School community                         

the people, groups, and providers who are invested in the welfare of the school, including: students, teachers, school leaders and other staff, trustees, parents, whānau, hapū, iwi, health services and social workers.

Significant adults                                 

people in the school who are important to students. These could be teachers, counsellors, leaders or other staff.

Social and emotional learning    

learning to   do things like recognising and responding to emotional states (both in   oneself and in others), co-operating, seeking and giving help as necessary.

Sources of evidence                       

places to look, or ways of collecting information when you want to answer questions. For example, if you want  to know how students feel about bullying in the school, a survey of students could be one source of evidence


beliefs or practices directed towards deep values and meaning. These can be associated with a particular religious faith, but this is not necessarily so.

Strengths-based practices                   

practices which build on what is already done well,  and recognise existing resources, knowledge and skills to provide a positive background to future improvement.

Student achievement and success

these could be academic, cultural, sporting, artistic or social skills and abilities that  students possess and show.

Te Whare Tapa Whā/Hauora        

a symbol of holistic overall wellbeing (hauora), made up of four dimensions: taha tinana (physical health); taha wairua (spiritual health); taha whānau (family health and belonging); taha hinengaro (mental health).

Wellbeing Indicator Framework

the organising structure for the wellbeing indicators. The six different parts of the framework are all related to one another and are intended be used together holistically.

Appendix B: The New Zealand Curriculum9


Our vision is for young people:

  • Who will be creative, energetic, and enterprising
  • Who will seize the opportunities offered by new knowledge and technologies to secure a sustainable social, culture, economic, and environmental future for our country
  • Who will work to create an Aotearoa New Zealand in which Māori and Pākehā recognise each other as full Treaty partners, and in which all cultures are valued for the contributions they bring
  • Who, in their school years, will continue to develop the values, knowledge, and competencies that will enable them to live full and satisfying lives
  • Who will be confident, connected, actively involved, and lifelong learners.


All curriculum should be consistent with these eight statements:

  • High expectations
  • Treaty of Waitangi
  • Cultural diversity
  • Inclusion
  • Learning to learn
  • Community engagement
  • Coherence
  • Future focus.


  • Students will be encouraged to value:
  • Excellence
  • Innovation, inquiry, and curiosity
  • Diversity
  • Equity
  • Community and participation
  • Ecological sustainability
  • Integrity
  • Respect.

Key Competencies

The New Zealand Curriculum identifies five key competencies:

  • Thinking
  • Using language, symbols, and texts
  • Managing self
  • Relating to others
  • Participating and contributing.

Health and Physical Education Curriculum10


Mason Durie described four dimensions of hauora in the development of his widely used model of Māori health, Te Whare Tapa Whā.11


Te Whare Tapa Whā is represented by the four walls of a wharenui,12  or meeting house, where each wall symbolises the elements necessary to sustain hauora or health and wellbeing. These dimensions or elements are Taha Hinengaro, Taha Wairua, Taha Tinana, and Taha Whānau. Taha Hinengaro focuses on mental health and emotions.

Taha Wairua focuses on spiritual health. Taha Tinana focuses on physical health, and Taha Whānau focuses on the epicentre of one’s wellbeing: whānau.

Figure 5: Te Whare Tapa Whā

marae diagram mental, spiritual, physical, extended family health

Attitudes and values

A positive, responsible attitude on the part of students to their own wellbeing; respect, care, and concern for other people and the environment; and a sense of social  justice.

The socio-ecological perspective

This socio-ecological perspective has been embraced in the Health and Physical Education curriculum as a way of viewing the inter-connectedness that exists between students and the worlds they live in.

Health promotion

A process that helps to develop and maintain supportive physical and emotional environments and that involves students in personal and collective action.

Figure 6: Socio-ecological perspective

Global Community, School, Whānau hapū and iwi students and their peers

Appendix C: Social and Emotional Competencies13

CASEL has identified five interrelated sets of cognitive, affective and behavioral competencies. The definitions of the five competency clusters for students are:

Self-awareness: The ability to accurately recognise one’s emotions and thoughts and their influence on behaviour. This includes accurately assessing one’s strengths and limitations and possessing a well-grounded sense of confidence and optimism.

Self-management: The ability to regulate one’s emotions, thoughts, and behaviours effectively in different situations. This includes managing stress, controlling impulses, motivating oneself, and setting and working toward achieving personal and academic goals.

Social awareness: The ability to take the perspective of and empathise with others from diverse backgrounds and cultures, to understand social and ethical norms for behaviour, and to recognise family, school, and community resources and   supports.

Relationship skills: The ability to establish and maintain healthy and rewarding relationships with diverse individuals and groups. This includes communicating clearly, listening actively, cooperating, resisting inappropriate social pressure, negotiating conflict constructively, and seeking and offering help when needed.

Responsible decision-making: The ability to make constructive and respectful choices about personal behaviour and social interactions based on consideration of ethical standards, safety concerns, social norms, the realistic evaluation of consequences of various actions, and the wellbeing of self and others.

Appendix D: Resiliency and Mental Health Promotion14

Protective Factors for Fostering Resilience in Young People

  • Family and parent connectedness
  • Parental presence at key times – waking up, bedtime and mealtimes, especially evening meal with the television turned off
  • Parents who provide love and care as well as set boundaries and limits
  • School connectedness that enables young people to say: “I feel that my teachers are fair, they care, school is a place where I   belong”
    • Connectedness to other adults outside the family who take a positive interest, such as teachers and parents of close friends
    • Spirituality – having a belief system (not necessarily a religion) and a sense of personal identity and self-awareness.

Factors that can undermine Resiliency

  • Loss and grief
  • Poor academic success
  • Undeveloped social skills
  • Relationship difficulties
  • Same sex attraction
  • Impact of transitions (changing school, changing family structure)
  • Search for self-identity
  • Drug and alcohol misuse
  • History of victimisation or witnessing violence
  • Appearing ‘older’ or ‘younger’ than most of the peer group
  • Repeating a year level
  • Lowered sense of self-worth
  • Perceived prejudice
  • Fear and uncertainty about the future
  • Issues about body image, particularly for girls.

Appendix E: Mandates for this work

The Code of Ethics for Registered Teachers15

The Code of Ethics for Registered Teachers states that teachers will strive to ‘promote the physical, emotional, social, intellectual and spiritual wellbeing of  learners’.

Registered Teacher Criteria

Criteria 1 and 2 of the Registered Teacher Criteria16 state that fully registered  teachers:

  1. Establish and maintain effective professional relationships focused on the learning and wellbeing of all ākonga.
  2. Demonstrate commitment to promoting the wellbeing of all ākonga.

National Administration Guidelines

Each board of trustees is also required to provide a safe physical and emotional environment for students; promote healthy food and nutrition for all students; and comply in full with any legislation currently in force or that may be developed to ensure the safety of students and employees.

United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child17

The  United  Nations  Convention  on  the  Rights  of  the  Child  (UNCROC) was  adopted  by the UN in 1989 and defines universal principles and standards for the status and treatment of children worldwide. It is overseen by the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child.

UNCROC is made up of 54 articles that set out a range of human rights standards for the treatment of children and young people. Four articles capture the general principles underpinning the Convention. These are:

  • all children have the right to protection from discrimination on any  grounds
  • the best interests of the child should be the primary consideration in all matters affecting the child
  • children have the rights to life, survival and development
  • all children have the right to an opinion and for that opinion to be heard in all contexts.

Vulnerable Children Bill

The Vulnerable Children Bill 18 has been developed as a measure to protect and improve the wellbeing of vulnerable children as part of the Children’s Action Plan19 which was released in October, 2012. The Vulnerable Children Bill supports the Government’s Better Public Services programme in the key result area of reducing the number of assaults on children. Section 18 of the bill provides a direct mandate for school boards to adopt and require    child protection policies.

Appendix  F:  Acknowledgements

ERO would like to acknowledge the contributions from the following groups during the development of the Draft Evaluation Indicators for Student   Wellbeing.

The Subject Matter Expert Group members included representation from:

  • The Mental Health Foundation
  • Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services, Capital and Coast District Health Board
  • Regional Public Health
  • Health Promotion Agency
  • Compass Health
  • VIBE
  • Skylight Trust.

The External Reference Group members included representation from:

  • New Zealand Association of Intermediate and Middle Schools
  • New Zealand Association of Counsellors
  • Post Primary Teachers’ Association
  • Secondary Principals’ Association New Zealand
  • New Zealand Area Schools Association
  • New Zealand Catholic Education Office
  • New Zealand Educational Institute
  • New Zealand School Trustees Association
  • New Zealand RTLB Association.

The Henry Rongomau Bennett Rangatahi Advisory Group from Te Rau Matatini. (Te Rau Matatini is an organisational leader in the development of innovative health and disability workforce solutions that respond to the needs of Ma-ori and their communities.)

Appendix G: References

The Evaluation Indicators for Student Wellbeing are drawn from the following research and evaluation evidence.

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10   Ministry of Education (2007) The New Zealand Curriculum. Wellington: Learning Media Ltd.

11    Durie, M. (1994). Whaiora, Maori Health Development. Auckland: Oxford University Press.

12     Retrieved  from

13    CASEL. (2008) Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) and Student Benefits: Implications for the Safe Schools/Healthy Students Core Elements. Washington DC: National Center for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention, Education Development Center

14   Cited in Dickinson, P. (2001) Guidelines for Mentally Healthy Schools. Auckland: Mental Health Foundation of  New Zealand.

15    New Zealand Teachers Council. (2004) Code of Ethics for Registered Teachers. Retrieved from content/code-ethics-registered-teachers-1  (12  November 2013).

16   New Zealand Teachers Council. (2009). Registered Teacher Criteria.

17   Available at convention-on-the-rights-of-the-child

18   Available   at

19   Ministry of Social Development. (2012). Children’s Action Plan: Identifying, Supporting and Protecting Vulnerable Children: The White Paper for Vulnerable Children. Wellington: Author.