Section Two: Wellbeing Indicator Framework

This section contains the Wellbeing Indicator Framework and the indicator tables.

The Wellbeing Indicator Framework has been organised into three interrelated and interdependent parts. They are – A Culture of Wellbeing: Values and Practice; Ako: Learning, Teaching and Curriculum; Systems, People and Initiatives.

Each part of the Wellbeing Indicator Framework is described below:

A Culture of Wellbeing: Values and Practice describes the expressed values, school aspirations and stated objectives for wellbeing. These ‘values in action’ underpin all interactions (interventions, strategies, activities, relationships, planning and practices) and assist students to achieve the desired outcomes for student wellbeing.

Ako: Learning, Teaching and Curriculum describes a dynamic interaction between the learner, the curriculum and effective teaching practices. When this dynamic is supported by a culture of wellbeing, strong leadership, partnerships, improvement processes and effective systems, people and initiatives, then students can realise their potential and experience a wide range of successes.

Systems, People and Initiatives describes the activities, practices, actions and processes required for all students, particularly vulnerable students who require deliberate and targeted support. Enhancing student wellbeing is a shared responsibility and requires access to expertise across the school and through partnerships with whānau, the community and relevant support services. Developing expertise and working collaboratively enables identification of student needs and provides a basis for early interventions and referral pathways.

Within each of these parts, the domains of leadership, partnerships, and improvement and responsiveness feature. These domains are fundamental supports for wellbeing.

Figure 3: Wellbeing Indicator Framework

Table showing wellbeing indicator framework - including leadership, partnerships

Leadership for wellbeing must be a shared responsibility across the school with a strong emphasis on student perspectives, involvement and leadership activities that contribute directly to their own wellbeing.

Partnerships with students, parents, whānau, community, school staff and agencies provide opportunities for greater involvement in promoting and responding to student wellbeing and support the inclusion of diverse perspectives in decision-making processes that focus on student wellbeing.

Improvement and responsiveness involves robust processes that systematically inquire into the effectiveness of student wellbeing policies, programmes and practices. These two processes inform decision-making and goal setting to improve the quality and responsiveness of actions designed to enhance student wellbeing.

Evaluation indicators for student wellbeing

The indicators are organised as follows:

  • A Culture of Wellbeing: Values and Practice
  • Ako: Learning, Teaching and Curriculum
  • Systems, People and Initiatives.

A culture of wellbeing: Values and Practices


Evaluation Indicators


Expressed values are the school’s aspirations and stated objectives for wellbeing.

Values are drivers or starting points for developing a culture of wellbeing.

  • The school’s values are consistent with the desired outcomes for student wellbeing.
  • The school’s values reflect the strengths and potential of students, teachers, parents and whānau.
  • School values celebrate the diversity in the school, for example, different religions, spirituality, ethnicities, sexual orientation, and gender identity.
  • The school values are reflected in:

-   strategic planning, goals and targets

-   the underpinning rationales for school-wide systems, for example, guidance and counselling, pastoral care, transitions and learning pathways

-   the underpinning rationales for policies, procedures and the development of new initiatives

-   newsletters, assemblies, websites, classroom blogs, social media, etc

-   the physical environment, for example, signage and classroom expectations and contracts.


The way things are done around here: All interactions (interventions, strategies, activities, relationships, planning and practices) are underpinned by the school’s culture and values.

  • All students are thriving in line with the desired outcomes for student wellbeing.
  • All staff show a commitment to the promotion of student wellbeing.
    • Parents, wha-nau and visitors to the school observe wellbeing values in action, for example, in the interactions between staff and students.
    • Wellbeing values are actioned in the school’s partnerships, curriculum and operations and evident in:

-   leadership, resourcing and staff  responsibilities

-   curriculum priorities and delivery

-   pastoral care processes and systems

-   relationships with agencies

-   relationships and celebrations

-   professional learning and development.

  • There is a high level of social inclusion, for example, all students are actively supported by their peers. (See also the Inclusive Practices Tool at
    • The physical environment supports student wellbeing, for example, in the design and layout of student liaison areas, for example, health centres, sick bays, counselling rooms.


Students, principals, other senior managers, middle managers, teacher leaders and school trustees

  • Leaders are role models in their ethical commitment to wellbeing.
  • Leaders establish clear goals and expectations that ensure organised, well aligned, coordinated and supportive environments for student wellbeing.
  • Students actively improve their wellbeing and the wellbeing of others through their contributions to student council, prefect body, peer mentoring, playground mediators, Tuakana Teina, buddy classes and house captain opportunities, etc.
  • All staff are provided with a clear mandate to improve student wellbeing and given the resources and training to support this work.


  • Leaders and teachers work in partnership with students, parents, whānau, community and external agencies to promote student wellbeing.
  • Students actively contribute to the planning, implementation and review of wellbeing initiatives.
  • Teachers collaborate to enhance student wellbeing, for example, through seeking and sharing knowledge of what works for individual students.

The range of full inquiry and improvement processes across the school

  • The school’s inquiry and improvement culture draws from a range of data sources, is responsive, and operates at different levels across the school (is not limited to a formal review process).
  • Data that builds a picture of student wellbeing is well used.
  • All staff engage in inquiry and improvement processes to identify, prioritise and respond to student wellbeing.
  • Leaders and teachers review wellbeing initiatives and modify as required to improve wellbeing.

AKO: Learning, Teaching and Curriculum


Evaluation Indicators


  • All staff integrate a focus on student wellbeing alongside a focus on student achievement.
  • Positive, trusting and fair student-teacher relationships are the basis for teachers building their holistic knowledge of learners and their response to student wellbeing.
  • Students see and use their strengths, interests and prior knowledge, including their language, culture and identity in the curriculum.
  • Students engage in the design of their own learning activities, eg: Enterprise learning – problem-solving tasks, designing their own experiments, inquiry and research projects.
  • Students acquire social and emotional competencies - this includes responding to the emotions of others, working cooperatively, seeking help as needed and intervening as required.
    • Teachers from across the school engage in the development of Individual Education Plans to support wellbeing and learning for all vulnerable children.
  • Teachers use the concepts and the sets of achievement objectives in the Health and Physical Education3 curriculum in the implementation of the overall curriculum (all teachers are health teachers).
  • Teacher practices are consistent with models of effective teaching, as outlined in ERO’s Education Indicators for School Reviews, Tātaiako (The Ministry of Education, 2011) and Effective Teaching Profile (Bishop & Berryman, 2009).


Students, principals, other senior managers, middle managers, teacher leaders and school trustees

  • Leaders make curriculum decisions that are informed by the school’s desired outcomes for student wellbeing.
  • Leaders provide clear school-wide guidelines on how to integrate aspects of wellbeing across the curriculum.
  • The school-wide guidelines for implementation of wellbeing strategies, intervention and programmes allow teachers to practice with a sense of agency4 and autonomy based on the needs of their students.


  • Teachers develop and value learners through a range of responsive, reciprocal relationships within school, and with parents, whānau and the wider community.
  • Parents and whānau benefit from reciprocal partnerships with teachers that support student wellbeing, for example, parents and teachers have joint strategies for supporting student wellbeing and learning:

-   Teachers inform parents and whānau of issues that affect student wellbeing and learning.

-   Parents inform teachers of issues that could affect student wellbeing and learning.

  • Teachers partner with parents and whānau through formal and informal methods of communication.
  • Leaders and teachers consult with the community to decide on curriculum priorities.


The range of full inquiry and improvement processes across the school

  • Leaders and teachers are engaged in an inquiry process that improves their implementation of the curriculum to reflect wellbeing.
  • Curriculum priorities are reviewed in terms of their contribution to student wellbeing.
  • Teachers regularly inquire into how effective and relevant their teaching practices are in supporting student wellbeing.
    • Inquiry and improvement processes involve student and wha-nau perspectives.
    • Teachers document the impact and effectiveness of strategies to improve student wellbeing as a form of evidence to assist with decisions in the future.



Evaluation Indicators


Proactive and responsive

  • All students have access to guidance and support at school. There are no barriers to individuals and groups of students accessing guidance and support.
  • All students have more than one trusting, positive relationship with an adult at school.
  • All leaders and teachers practice ethically (in accordance with their registering body).
  • Schools have well-defined processes and procedures for dealing with traumatic experiences in the school community.
  • Strategies, plans and actions recognise the need to grow expertise for student wellbeing at school.
  • Information sharing procedures between leaders, students, teachers, support staff, parents and external agencies are clear.
  • Significant adults are identified in each student’s circle of care:5

-   Significant adults grow student potential

-   Significant adults are included in making decisions about student wellbeing.

  • All leaders and teachers have the skills to effectively support student wellbeing including the skills to:

-   identify distressed and vulnerable students with support from pastoral care teams

-   contribute to strategies to improve student wellbeing

-   monitor the outcomes of strategies and actions to improve student wellbeing

-   work ethically and responsibly with information that risks student safety

-   make appropriate and timely referrals to school guidance counsellors and external agencies.

  • Decisions to improve student wellbeing made by leaders, teachers and support staff are supported by pastoral care teams, guidance counsellors and follow Good Practice Guidelines, such as the Ministry of Education’s Anti-Bullying Guidelines and Preventing and Responding to Suicide: Resource kit for schools.


Principals, other senior managers, middle managers, teacher leaders and school trustees

  • Leaders implement wellbeing initiatives that are effective and based on research and evidence.
  • Leaders clearly define the scope of staff roles and responsibilities in promoting  student wellbeing.
  • Leaders include the staff responsibility for student wellbeing in appraisal processes.
  • Trustees clearly document wellbeing priorities and how they will be met.
  • Students lead change that improves wellbeing, for example, identifying what they need to improve their own wellbeing and school-wide systems.
  • Leaders allocate resources to meet the needs of vulnerable students.
  • Leaders establish a high level of coordination between pastoral care processes and curriculum.
  • Leaders receive regular updates about the outcomes, actions and decisions made about student wellbeing.
  • Leaders participate in and promote school-wide activities for student wellbeing.
    • Recruitment practices are consistent with Recruiting and Managing School Staff.6
    • Conduct and Competence Process Guidelines7 are followed.


  • Memorandums of Understanding between the school and external agencies support the desired outcomes for student wellbeing.
  • School staff work collaboratively with students, parents, wha-nau and external agencies to support the desired outcomes for student wellbeing.
  • All staff are aware of referral pathways in the community.
  • Lead health professionals engage and attend student Individual Education Plans/multi-disciplinary meetings to grow student aspirations and goals and provide staff with strategies to support student wellbeing.
    • Partnerships with Resource Teachers: Learning and Behaviour, youth workers, social workers, Check and Connect mentors, school guidance counsellors, Child, Youth and Family (CYF), Police, and Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) are well established and assist with effective referral and follow up.

The range of full inquiry and improvement processes across the school

  • Schools use multiple sources of evidence to find out about both individual student wellbeing and overall school wellbeing, including the use of: syndicate and multi-disciplinary team meeting minutes, achievement data, attendance data, stand-down and exclusion data, Wellbeing@School data, Inclusive Practices Tool data, observation notes, etc.
  • Inquiry and improvement processes use what is known about student wellbeing to identify vulnerable students and areas for improvement, including student access to guidance and support at school.
  • Identified needs are areas for action in school documents including strategic plans and actions plans.
    • Inquiry and improvement processes include student, parent, community, staff and external agency perspectives.


3     The concepts of the Health and Physical Education Curriculum can be found in Appendix B, together with The New Zealand Curriculum vision, principles, values and key competencies.

4     Agency refers to the feeling that we are in control of our own actions.

5     See Circle of Care as adapted by ERO for use in New Zealand schools in ERO’s report, Improving Guidance and Counselling for Students in Secondary Schools (2013).

6   Ministry of Education. (2012) Recruiting and Managing School Staff: A Guide for Boards of Trustees. Wellington: Ministry of Education.

7   New Zealand Teachers Council. Conduct and Competence Process Guide. Available at