Appendix 3: References

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Cullen, J. (1996). The challenge of Te Whāriki for future developments in early childhood education. Delta, 48 (1): 113-125.

Dalli, C. (2011). A curriculum of open possibilities: a New Zealand kindergarten teacher’s view of professional practice. Early Years 31 (3): 229-243. Retrieved from

ECE Taskforce (2011). An Agenda for Amazing Children: Final Report of the ECE Taskforce. Wellington.

ERO (2010). Success for Māori Children in Early Childhood Services. Wellington. Education Review Office.

ERO (2012). Partnership with Whānau Māori in Early Childhood Services. Wellington. Education Review Office.

Hedges, H. and Cullen, J. (2005). Subject Knowledge in Early Childhood Curriculum and Pedagogy: beliefs and practices. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood 6 (1): 66-79.

Hedges, H. (2008). “Even when we’re big we’ll still be friends”. Working theories in children’s learning. Early Childhood Folio 12: 2-6.

Ministry of Education. (1993). Te Whāriki: Draft guidelines for developmentally appropriate programmes in early childhood services. Wellington: Learning Media.

Ministry of Education, (1996). Te Whāriki, He Whāriki Mātauranga mō ngā Mokopuna o Aotearoa. Wellington: Learning Media.

Ministry of Education (2009). Ka Hikitia - Managing for Success: The Māori Education Strategy 2008-2012, updated 2009. Ministry of Education. Wellington.

Ministry of Education (2011). Tataiako: Cultural Competencies for Teachers of Māori Learners. Ministry of Education. Wellington.

Nuttall, J. (2002). Early Childhood Curriculum in Theory, Ideology and Practice: Using Te Whariki. Delta 54 (1 & 2): 91-104.

Ritchie, J. (2003). Whakawhanaungatanga: Dilemmas for mainstream New Zealand early childhood education of a commitment to bicultural pedagogy. In Proceedings of the 11th Reconceptualizing Early Childhood Education Conference. Retrieved from

Smith, A. B. (2011). Relationships with people, places and things – Te Whāriki. Miller, L. and Pound L. (eds) Theories and Approaches to Learning in the Early Years. pp 149-162. Sage, London.

Taguma, M., Litjens, I. and Makowiecki, K. (2012). Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care: New Zealand. Available from

Te One, S. (2003). ‘The context of Te Whāriki: contemporary issues of influence’, in Nuttall J. (ed.) Weaving Te Whāriki: Aotearoa New Zealand’s Early Childhood Curriculum Document in Theory and Practice. Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research. pp. 17-49.